Articles by Taxonomic Group

Two novel species of Neosporidesmium from India

J. Pratibha, A.A. Mao & Ashish Prabhugaonkar
MYCOBIOTA 8: 9–14 (2018)
doi: https://doi.org/10.12664/mycobiota.2018.08.02
Published online: 19 April 2018
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Two novel species of the asexual ascomycete genus Neosporidesmium are described as N. garoense and N. khasianum from Garo and Khasi Hills of Meghalaya, India, respectively. Neosporidesmium garoense growing on bamboo litter is distinguished from closely related species by the larger size of synnema and smaller conidia. Neosporidesmium khasianum growing on litter of the tree Wightia speciosissima is distinguished by the size of conidia, the presence of multiple proliferations and the size of synnema.

Ascomycota,asexual morphs,Garo-Khasi hills,India,Meghalaya,Neosporidesmium,new species,synnemata,taxonomy

First records of two freshwater lichens, Hydropunctaria scabra and Verrucaria alpicola, from Bulgaria

Veselin V. Shivarov, Holger Thüs & Cvetomir M. Denchev
MYCOBIOTA 7: 1–5 (2017)
doi: https://doi.org/10.12664/mycobiota.2017.07.01
Published online: 22 February 2017
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Two lichen-forming fungi, Hydropunctaria scabra and Verrucaria alpicola (Verrucariaceae, Ascomycota), are reported for the first time from Bulgaria. Descriptions and ecological observations based on the Bulgarian populations are provided. For Verrucaria alpicola the ability to survive a continuous submersion over a period of at least four years is confirmed.

Bulgaria,freshwater habitats,lichen-forming fungi,Verrucariaceae

Kiliophora novozhilovii sp. nov. and first record of Zanclospora cf. novae-zelandiae (asexual ascomycetes) from Vietnam

Vadim A. Mel'nik, Uwe Braun & Alina V. Alexandrova
MYCOBIOTA 6: 47–54 (2016)
doi: https://doi.org/10.12664/mycobiota.2016.06.05
Published online: 17 July 2016
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The new species Kiliophora novozhilovii (Ascomycota, Incertae sedis), found in Vietnam on a dead leaf of an unidentified tree, is described, illustrated, compared with other species assigned to Kiliophora, and keyed out. The asexual, hyphomycetous ascomycete Zanclospora cf. novae-zelandiae has been found in Vietnam for the first time. This hitherto rarely encountered species is described and illustrated based on the Vietnamese collection, and its taxonomy is briefly discussed.

distribution, hyphomycetes, Kiliophora, new species, Southeast Asia, Vietnam, Zanclospora

Gonatophragmium lichenophilum sp. nov. – a new lichenicolous hyphomycete from Austria

Franz Berger, Uwe Braun & Bettina Heuchert
MYCOBIOTA 5: 7–13 (2015)
doi: https://doi.org/10.12664/mycobiota.2015.05.02
Published online: 12 June 2015
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The new lichenicolous hyphomycete species Gonatophragmium lichenophilum, found on Xanthoria parietina in Austria, is described, illustrated, discussed and compared with other species of Gonatophragmium. A key is given to all recognised species of this genus.

Ascomycota,asexual morph,Austria,Gonatophragmium,lichen-inhabiting,lichenicolous fungi,taxonomic novelty

A first list of lichenicolous fungi from India

Mikhail P. Zhurbenko
MYCOBIOTA 3: 19–34 (2013)
doi: https://doi.org/10.12664/mycobiota.2013.03.03
Published online: 09 November 2013
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Thirty six species of lichenicolous fungi are reported from India, all but one being new to the country. Endococcus incrassatus and Monodictys epilepraria are new to Asia. Endocarpon and Melanelixia are new host genera for Endococcus incrassatus and Lichenoconium xanthoriae respectively. Cladosporium licheniphilum is for the first time reported on Xanthoria candelaria, as is Corticifraga peltigerae on Peltigera elisabethae and P. ponojensis, and Nectriopsis lecanodes on Peltigera elisabethae and P. scabrosa. Two possibly undescribed species of lichenicolous fungi, viz. Cercidospora sp. on Lecanora sp. and Lichenostigma subgen. Lichenogramma sp. on Seirophora contortuplicata, are briefly described and discussed. Host lichens Peltigera ponojensis, P. scabrosa and Seirophora contortuplicata are new to India.

Asia,biogeography,India,lichen-inhabiting fungi,lichens,taxonomy

Atractilina alinae sp. nov. and Neosporidesmium vietnamense sp. nov. – two new synnematous hyphomycetes from Vietnam

Vadim A. Mel'nik & Uwe Braun
MYCOBIOTA 3: 1–9 (2013)
doi: https://doi.org/10.12664/mycobiota.2013.03.01
Published online: 03 November 2013
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The new species Atractilina alinae and Neosporidesmium vietnamense, collected in Vietnam on fallen leaves of an unidentified tree and on bark of a twig of an unknown tree, respectively, are described, illustrated and discussed. A. alinae resembles the hyperparasitic A. parasitica, but differs in having quite distinct conidia. Neosporidesmium vietnamense is morphologically unique by its synnematous, indeterminate conidiomata, integrated, terminal, monoblastic, non-proliferating conidiogenous cells and obclavate, rostrate, euseptate conidia, but taxonomically rather complex with regard to its generic affinity.

Ascomycota,asexual morphs,new species,Southeast Asia,synnemata,Vietnam

New records of Verrucariaceae (Ascomycota) from Bulgaria

Veselin V. Shivarov
MYCOBIOTA 3: 11–17 (2013)
doi: https://doi.org/10.12664/mycobiota.2013.03.02
Published online: 03 November 2013
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Five lichenized fungi in Verrucariaceae, Hydropunctaria rheitrophila, Thelidium fontigenum, T. zwackhii, Verrucaria aquatilis, and V. elaeina, are reported for the first time from Bulgaria. Detailed descriptions, illustrations, and comments are provided.

Bulgaria,freshwater lichens,lichenized fungi,Verrucariaceae

Notes on epilithic, epigeic and muscicolous lichens and lichenicolous fungi from rock outcrops in the mountains of northern Greece

Steen N. Christensen & Vagn Alstrup
MYCOBIOTA 1: 25–50 (2013)
doi: https://doi.org/10.12664/mycobiota.2013.01.04
Published online: 11 January 2013
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Of the 154 taxa reported, 28 species are new to Greece, 9 new to the Greek mainland and 39 new to one or more provinces. Many of these records represent substantial range extensions of species with Central European or arctic-boreal distribution. The distribution data are briefly discussed and notes are given on the species composition of different substrates.

biodiversity,granite,Greece,limestone,Mediterranean-montane lichens,serpentine

Biazrovia, a new genus of lichenicolous ascomycetes from Asia

Mikhail P. Zhurbenko & Javier Etayo
MYCOBIOTA 1: 51–56 (2013)
doi: https://doi.org/10.12664/mycobiota.2013.01.05
Published online: 11 January 2013
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The genus Biazrovia is described from Siberia for the single new species B. stereocaulicolagrowing on Stereocaulon species. It is characterized by a lichenicolous habit; finally urceolate orange-brown apothecia; a cupulate non-hairy exciple; a hyaline, I−, K/I− hymenium; filiform, apically swollen paraphyses; 8-spored, I−, K/I− asci with an apically thickened wall without a distinct ocular chamber; and hyaline, trans-septate, smooth-walled, non-halonate ascospores. The new genus is provisionally included in the Ostropales.

lichen-inhabiting fungi,Ostropales,Russia,Stereocaulon
Oncopodium lidiae sp. nov. (Hyphomycetes) on Fumana procumbens from Hungary
Sándor Tóth & Ágnes Révay
Mycologia Balcanica 8: 89–91 (2011)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550418
Published online: 13 December 2011
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Oncopodium lidiae sp. nov. is described and illustrated from the cortex of Fumana procumbens (Cistaceae) collected in Hungary. This species has been collected several times and from different localities in Hungary exclusively from dry twigs of Fumana procumbens. A key of Oncopodium species is presented.

Fumana procumbens, hyphomycetes, new species, Oncopodium lidiae
Lichenized fungi of the Binaloud Mountains, NE Iran
Mahroo Haji Moniri, Nafiseh Noferesti, Solmaz J. Mirasgari & Mahboobeh Tavakoli
Mycologia Balcanica 8: 93–96 (2011)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550428
Published online: 13 December 2011
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During an ongoing investigation of Iran’s lichen biota we explored two valleys in the Binaloud Mountains (west of Mashhad, Razavi Khorasan province). As a result, we report 57 species, including 18 species new to the province.

biodiversity, lichenized fungi, Razavi Khorasan
New data on hypogeous fungi from Greece with special reference to Wakefieldia macrospora (Hymenogastraceae, Agaricales) and Geopora clausa (Pyronemataceae, Pezizales)
Vasileios Kaounas, Boris Assyov & Pablo Alvarado
Mycologia Balcanica 8: 105–113 (2011)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550663
Published online: 13 December 2011
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This work provides new information about five interesting and uncommon hypogeous fungi from Greece – Balsamia vulgaris, Geopora clausa, Hydnocystis piligera, Sclerogaster compactus and Wakefieldia macrospora. Descriptions of the five species are included based upon Greek collections, accompanied by colour macro- and microphotographs, and molecular data of four of them. On the basis of molecular results, the genus Wakefieldia seems to be closely related to Hebeloma in the Hymenogastraceae, while Geopora clausa appears to be related to Geopora in the Pyronemataceae.

Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, Boletales, Geastrales, ITS – LSU
Red as a flame and lovely as a flower: Perrotia flammea from Greece
Panagiotis Delivorias, Marina Triantafyllou & Zacharoula Gonou-Zagou
Mycologia Balcanica 8: 125–128 (2011)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550671
Published online: 13 December 2011
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Six new records of the unusual ascomycete Perrotia flammea (Helotiales, Hyaloscyphaceae) from Greece are presented, along with a detailed description based on dried material, taxonomic notes, line drawings and a colour plate.

Ascomycota, cup fungi, discomycetes, taxonomy
New records of microfungal genera from Mt. Strandzha in Bulgaria (south-eastern Europe). II
Elşad Hüseyin, Faruk Selçuk & Ali S. Bülbül
Mycologia Balcanica 8: 157–160 (2011)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550707
Published online: 13 December 2011
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Twenty species of ascomycetous and anamorphic fungi from twenty genera are reported for the first time from Mt. Strandzha in Bulgaria.

Pezizomycotina, anamorphic fungi, Bulgaria, fungal diversity, Mt. Strandzha
New records of microfungi from Mt. Strandzha in Turkey (south-eastern Europe). I
Ali S. Bülbül, Faruk Selçuk & Elşad Hüseyin
Mycologia Balcanica 8: 161–167 (2011)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550711
Published online: 13 December 2011
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Thirty eight species from eighteen genera of ascomycetous and anamorphic fungi are reported for the first time from Mt. Strandzha in Turkey.

anamorphic fungi, ascomycetes, fungal diversity, Mt. Strandzha, Turkey
Biodiversity of endophytic fungi associated with Ficus religiosa and F. benghalensis
S. Maheswari & K. Rajagopal
Mycologia Balcanica 8: 169–172 (2011)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550723
Published online: 13 December 2011
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Endophytic fungi were isolated from leaf and bark tissues of Ficus religiosa and F. benghalensis (Moraceae) in a tropical forest in southern India. Five hundred leaf and bark segments from each plant species were collected. Endophytic fungi were more numerous from leaf segments than bark. In this study, hyphomycetes were the most dominant group followed by coelomycetes, ascomycetes, zygomycetes, and sterile fungi. Leaf and bark tissues of F. religiosa had more endophytic fungi than F. benghalensis. Some endophytic fungi were common to both hosts, and few appeared to be host specific.

bark, endophytic fungi, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus religiosa, leaf, Moraceae, Tropics
New records of fungi, fungus-like organisms, and slime moulds from Europe and Asia: 28–29
Cvetomir M. (comp.) Denchev
Mycologia Balcanica 8: 173–175 (2011)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550727
Published online: 13 December 2011
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Curvularia lunata on Grewia optiva is recorded from India. Occurrence of Xylaria longipes is reported from Bulgaria.

ascomycetes, Bulgaria, Curvularia lunata, Grewia optiva, India, Xylaria longipes
Massariosphaeria websteri sp. nov. and several members of the Pleosporales noteworthy to Pakistan
Kazuaki Tanaka, Kazuyuki Hirayama & S.H. Iqbal
Mycologia Balcanica 7: 77–85 (2011)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550249
Published online: 14 January 2011
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A new species, Massariosphaeria websteri, on submerged decaying culms of a grass (possibly Phragmites karka) in freshwater in Pakistan is described, illustrated and compared with closely related taxa in the genus Massariosphaeria. It is characterized by immersed, scattered, subglobose to conical, ostiolate ascomata each with a papillate beak; 20–32 µm thick, 5–7 layers, polygonal to rectangular peridial cells; branched and anastomosed pseudoparaphyses; relatively large (170–245 × 26.5–35 µm), fissitunicate, cylindrical asci; and ascospores large-sized (av. 52.2 × 13.5 µm), narrowly fusiform to clavate, (7–) 8–11-septate, surrounded by a gelatinous sheath. Additionally, six other members of the Pleosporales, Massariosphaeria typhicola, Lophiostoma caulium, Lophiostoma compressum, Lophiostoma quadrinucleatum, Nodulosphaeria aquilana,  and Trichometasphaeria culmifida are reported.

aquatic fungi, Dothideomycetidae, freshwater ascomycetes, Pleosporales, taxonomy
Some interesting species of Hymenoscyphus from Greece
Panagiotis Delivorias, Ioannis Dimitriadis, Zacharoula Gonou-Zagou & Evangelia Kapsanaki-Gotsi
Mycologia Balcanica 7: 87–92 (2011)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550282
Published online: 14 January 2011
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Four interesting species of the genus Hymenoscyphus are presented from Greece. Hymenoscyphus serotinus is newly reported from Greece, whereas H. scutulus and H. virgultorum are reported for the second time. The formation of chlamydospores was observed in apothecia of H. scutulus. Descriptions, line drawings and microscopic photographs of all studied taxa are presented.

Ascomycota, cup fungi, discomycetes, taxonomy
New records of fungi, fungus-like organisms, and slime moulds from Europe and Asia: 20–27
Cvetomir M. (comp.) Denchev
Mycologia Balcanica 7: 117–123 (2011)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550322
Published online: 14 January 2011
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Synnemacrodictys stilboidea on Ailanthus altissima and Juniperus chinensis is recorded for the first time from Korea and Asia. Occurrence of Diplodia subtecta on Acer palmatum, Melanconis aucta on Alnus glutinosa, and Microbotryum stellariae on Stellaria graminea is reported from Bulgaria. Records of three larger basidiomycetes are given as new for Ukraine (Cantharellus amethysteus) and Bulgaria (Sarcodon joeides and Pluteus salicinus). A new Turkish record of a myxomycete, Physarum perfectum, is also presented.

Acer palmatum, Ailanthus altissima, Alnus glutinosa, Bulgaria, Cantharellus amethysteus, Diplodia subtecta, Juniperus chinensis, Korea, Melanconis aucta, Microbotryum stellariae, myxomycetes, Physarum perfectum, Pluteus salicinus, Sarcodon joeides, Stellaria graminea, Synnemacrodictys stilboidea, Turkey, Ukraine
A preliminary strategy for conserving non-lichen-forming ascomycetes and their anamorphs
David W. Minter
Mycologia Balcanica 7: 3–7 (2010)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550116
Published online: 03 November 2010
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Ideas for a preliminary strategy for conserving non-lichen-forming ascomycetes and their anamorphs are presented and discussed under four main headings: infrastructure, politics, education and science.

conservation, non-lichen-forming ascomycetes
The necessity of political will in fungal conservation: the case of Greece
Stephanos Diamandis
Mycologia Balcanica 7: 25–27 (2010)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550149
Published online: 03 November 2010
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The need for conservation of fungi in Europe has arisen after it was found in several countries that hundreds of fungal species have become extinct. Although Greece is located at the southernmost end of Europe in the Eastern Mediterranean, in a climatic zone characterized by long periods of drought, its mycota appear quite rich and unique. In recent years, Greek and also foreign companies have been picking enormous quantities of edible mushrooms from restricted geographical regions on a commercial level. There is no legislation as yet to monitor this new activity and to certify the mushrooms that are consumed by the public. After studying this situation, a technical committee submitted a proposal in 2007 for legislation to be introduced in order to protect the public from possible mushroom poisoning and also to regulate mushroom picking in an effort to conserve the fungal biodiversity. Sadly, the proposal has not been forwarded accordingly, the reason being “it was opposed by commercial interests”. It is concluded that in addition to having an integrated and sound scientific proposal on the subject, political will is also necessary.

conservation, legislation, mycota
Endangered desert truffles in Egypt and neighbouring Arab countries, with further notes on their distribution
A.H. Moubasher
Mycologia Balcanica 7: 59–64 (2010)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550187
Published online: 03 November 2010
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In a brief review of hypogeous ascomycetes occurring in desert regions of the Mediterranean, Middle East, north Africa, and adjacent countries, the food value, cultivation possibilities, mycorrhizal associations, and conservation status of species in the genera Delastria, Phaeangium, Terfezia, and Tirmania are discussed.

conservation of fungi, desert truffles, Helianthemum spp., Terfezia spp., Tirmania spp.
Conservation issues for Antarctic fungi
Paul D. Bridge & Kevin A. Hughes
Mycologia Balcanica 7: 73–76 (2010)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550215
Published online: 03 November 2010
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More than 1,000 species of fungi have been reported from the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic region. Most are species known from elsewhere in the world, particularly from cool temperate and alpine habitats: few are considered truly endemic to the Antarctic region. Several legislative mechanisms are available that could be used to protect or conserve the Antarctic mycota. These include national legislation within the sub-Antarctic islands, and the Measures and Decisions of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting which have jurisdiction within the Antarctic Treaty area south of latitude 60° S.

Antarctic fungi, Antarctic region, conservation
Rhizocarpon saurinum new to Asia, and other reports of Rhizocarpon species from Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran
Mahroo H. Moniri, Saleh Kamyabi & Alan M. Fryday
Mycologia Balcanica 6: 89–92 (2009)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2549930
Published online: 30 December 2009
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Six species and one subspecies of Rhizocarpon are reported from the Razavi Khorasan province of north east Iran. Rizocarpon saurinum is new to Asia, being previously reported only from western U.S.A. (Colorado and Utah), and Rhizocarpon macrosporum and R. geographicum subsp. tinei are new to Iran. The lichenicolous fungus Endococcus macrosporus is also reported for the first time from Iran.

Iran, lichenized fungi, new records, Rhizocarpon
New records of fungi, fungus-like organisms, and slime moulds from Europe and Asia: 14–19
Cvetomir M. (comp.) Denchev
Mycologia Balcanica 6: 169–173 (2009)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550073
Published online: 30 December 2009
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Information about the first finding in Bulgaria and the Balkan Peninsula of Boletus roseoalbidus (= Xerocomus roseoalbidus) is presented. A description and illustrations are provided upon the Bulgarian collections. Cytospora sacculus on Ailanthus altissima is a new record for Bulgaria. Four ascomycetes, Hyponectria buxi, Plagiosphaera immersa, Pleuroceras pleurostylum, Pseudovalsa umbonata, are reported for the first time from Bulgaria.

Ailanthus altissima, anamorphic fungi, Boletales, Boletus roseoalbidus, Bulgaria, Buxus sempervirens, Cytospora sacculus, Diaporthales, Gnomoniaceae, Hyponectria buxi, Hyponectriaceae, Melanconidaceae, Plagiosphaera immersa, Pleuroceras pleurostylum, Pseudovalsa umbonata, Quercus, Salix, Xerocomus roseoalbidus
The lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi of the Donetsk Upland (Ukraine)
Olga Nadyeina
Mycologia Balcanica 6: 37–53 (2009)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548834
Published online: 28 August 2009
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A lichen survey of the Donetsk Upland (SE Ukraine) was conducted based on data collected between 2005 and 2007 and a detailed review of the literature. A total of 233 species (221 lichens and 12 lichenicolous fungi) were recorded. Five species are recorded for the first time for Ukraine: Caloplaca raesaeneni, Cladonia magyarica, C. peziziformis, Endococcus rugulosus and Rinodina cf. guzzinii. A large number of species are new records for particular biogeographic regions, including 22 species new for the plain part of Ukraine, 15 for the steppe zone of Ukraine and 145 for the Donetsk Upland. Several of the species listed here were only recently first reported for Ukraine. Some misunderstood or questionable literature records from the Donestk Upland, such as Caloplaca teicholyta, Diploschistes scruposus, Lecanora frustulosa, Rinodina exigua and Thrombium cretaceum, are discussed.

biodiversity, lichen biota, lichenicolous fungi, steppe zone, Donetsk Upland
Extraction of taxol, an anticancer drug from coelomycetous fungi Pestalotiopsis versicolor and Phyllosticta murrayicola
G. Kathiravan & J. Muthumary
Mycologia Balcanica 6: 55–60 (2009)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548852
Published online: 28 August 2009
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Two different coelomycetous fungi were screened for the production of taxol, an anticancer drug. Taxol production was confirmed by following methods Ultra Violet (UV) spectroscopic analysis, Infra Red analysis (IR), High performance liquid chromatography analysis (HPLC) and Liquid chromatography mass spectrum (LC-MASS), and the taxol compared with authentic taxol. The fungal taxol was identical to authentic taxol. The taxol produced by the above fungi were tested against cancer A549 cell line.

A549 cell line, Pestalotiopsis versicolor, Phyllosticta murrayicola, taxol production
Contribution to the study of hypogeous fungi of Castellón, Spain. III
Miguel Torrejón
Mycologia Balcanica 6: 61–65 (2009)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548855
Published online: 28 August 2009
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Fourteen species of hypogeous fungi have been collected and studied in the province of Castellón in Spain. Significant diagnostic characters are given for some of them. Several species that belong to the Basidiomycota are of special interest: Alpova microsporus, Hymenogastser bulliardii, H. hessei, H. luteus, H. lycoperdineus, H. muticus, H. niveus and Protoglossum aromaticum (= Hymenogaster remyi).

Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, hypogeous fungi, Spain
Boerlagiomyces websteri (Ascomycota, Tubeufiaceae) from Hungary, first record outside the USA
Sándor Tóth
Mycologia Balcanica 6: 85–86 (2009)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2549145
Published online: 28 August 2009
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After a short review of the genus Boerlagiomyces, a short description of B. websteri is given and illustrated from material found in Hungary on old cherry stones.

Ascomycetes, Boerlagiomyces websteri, cherry stones, Hungary
Contribution to the study of fungi associated with Cistus ladanifer in the north-east of Portugal
Miguel Torrejón
Mycologia Balcanica 5: 109–114 (2008)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548613
Published online: 23 December 2008
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This work deals with 25 species and 4 varieties of fungi; which were collected in the north-east of Portugal. All of them were associated with Cistus ladanifer except Terfezia olbiensis, which was associated with Cistus ladanifer × Cistus salviifolius. Significant diagnostic characters are given for some of the collected specimens. Several species are of special interest: Amanita muscaria var. inzengae, Cortinarius asiduus var. plesiocistus, Cortinarius cystidifer and Terfezia olbiensis.

Cistus ladanifer, fungi, Portugal, taxonomy
The effects of some environmental parameters on mycelial growth of two ectomycorrhizal fungi, Tricholoma caligatum and Morchella angusticeps
Erbil Kalmış & Fatih Kalyoncu
Mycologia Balcanica 5: 115–118 (2008)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548617
Published online: 23 December 2008
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A comparative evaluation was conducted to assess the effects of some environmental parameters such as pH, type of carbon source and temperature on the mycelial growth of two species of ectomycorrhizal fungi, Tricholoma caligatum and Morchella angusticeps. All carbon sources were found to be equally beneficial for mycelial growth. However fructose and sucrose were better sources of nitrogen. Maximum mycelial growth in Petri dishes was achieved at 25 °C after 8 and 20 days for T. caligatum and M. angusticeps respectively. Growth was reduced significantly below 15 °C and above 35 °C. Different pH levels (4.5 to 8.0) markedly affected the mycelial growth of the fungi.

ectomycorrhiza, Morchella angusticeps, mycelial growth, Tricholoma caligatum
Epiphytic lichen mycota of, and new records from, Şerif Yüksel Research Forest, Bolu, Turkey
Gülşah Çobanoğlu, Ece Sevgi & Orhan Sevgi
Mycologia Balcanica 5: 135–140 (2008)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548660
Published online: 23 December 2008
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109 epiphytic lichen taxa are reported for the first time from Şerif Yüksel Research Forest in the province of Bolu in Turkey, 38 of which are new for the province and 5 are new to Turkey.

epiphytic lichens, lichen mycota, biodiversity, research forests of Turkey
A contribution to the lichen mycota of old beech forests in Bulgaria
Leo Spier, Klaas van Dort & Örjan Fritz
Mycologia Balcanica 5: 141–146 (2008)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548665
Published online: 23 December 2008
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In 2007 the epiphytic and epixylic lichen mycota of old beech forests in Bulgaria was investigated: 138 lichen species were found, of which 30 are reported as new to Bulgaria: Acrocordia cavata, Bacidia arceutina, B. incompta, B. neosquamulosa, Biatoridium monasteriense, Caloplaca lucifuga, Cetrelia monachorum, Chaenotheca brachypoda, C. chlorella, C. hispidula, Cladonia parasitica, Flavoparmelia soredians, Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta, Lopadium disciforme, Megalaria grossa, Menegazzia terebrata, Micarea micrococca, M. prasina, Omphalina ericetorum, Opegrapha rufescens, O. vermicellifera,  Pertusaria pustulata, Phaeocalicium polyporaeum, Placynthiella icmalea, Ramalina baltica, Rinodina efflorescens, Schismatomma decolorans, S. pericleum, Strigula stigmatella and Usnea esperantiana; several of these are rare in Europe: Caloplaca lucifuga, Cladonia parasitica, Megalaria grossa, Pertusaria pustulata and Strigula stigmatella.

ancient woodland, beech forest, dead wood, lichen diversity
The hypogeous fungi from Sicily (southern Italy): new additions
Alessandro Saitta, Maria L. Gargano, Marco Morara, Mirko Ilice & Giuseppe Venturella
Mycologia Balcanica 5: 147–152 (2008)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548806
Published online: 23 December 2008
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The distribution and ecology of forty hypogeous fungi from Sicily (southern Italy) is here pointed out. Hysterangium stoloniferum, Protoglossum aromaticum, Sclerogaster compactus and Tuber maculatum are reported as new records from Sicily. Gymnomyces xanthosporus and Melanogaster umbrinigleba are also new for Italy.

distribution, ecology, hypogeous fungi, Sicily
New and interesting lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from Tara National Park, Western Serbia
Leif Tibell & Sanja Savić
Mycologia Balcanica 5: 5–12 (2008)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548432
Published online: 30 May 2008
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Twenty-eight lichen species and five species of lichenicolous fungi are reported new to Serbia. Moreover 68 species that previously only rarely have been reported from Serbia are listed. The genera Cliostomum, Endococcus, Mycoblastus, Mycocalicium, Ropalospora, and Schismatomma are reported from Serbia for the first time. Tara National Park harbours several macrolichens that, although having been recorded previously but usually only long ago, most likely are rare and threatened in Serbia today, e.g. Collema auriforme, Evernia divaricata, Menegazzia terebrata, and Nephroma parile. Accompanying these are numerous crustose lichens with similar habitat preferences, some of them forming rich communities of calicioid lichens. Several species new to Serbia were also found on calcareous rock outcrops.

Balkan Peninsula, biodiversity, fungal diversity, lichenized fungi, Serbia, Tara National Park
Lichenicolous fungi from Russia, mainly from its Arctic. II
Mikhail P. Zhurbenko
Mycologia Balcanica 5: 13–22 (2008)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548440
Published online: 30 May 2008
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67 species in 44 genera of lichenicolous fungi and lichens are reported from Russia, of which 44 species are from its Arctic. The new combination Sphaerellothecium icmadophilae (R. Sant.) Zhurb. is introduced. Cercidospora verrucosaria, Lettauia cladoniicola, Sphaerellothecium icmadophilae, and Stigmidium collematis are new to the Arctic. Lichenochora constrictella, Lichenopeltella cladoniarum, Marchandiomyces corallinus, Sphaerellothecium icmadophilae, Stigmidium collematis, S. leucophlebiae, and Thamnogalla crombiei are new to Russia and Asia. Another five species are new to the Russian Arctic, four species new to Siberia and 18 species new to various Russian provinces. Five lichen genera and nine lichen species are new hosts to various species of lichenicolous fungi.

Arctic, lichenicolous mycota,, new combination, new distribution records, new lichen hosts, Russia, Sphaerellothecium
Coprophilous fungi from the Greek Aegean islands
Michael J. Richardson
Mycologia Balcanica 5: 23–32 (2008)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548443
Published online: 30 May 2008
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Seventy-seven species of coprophilous fungi, including Podospora macrodecipiens sp. nov., were recorded from 43 herbivore dung samples collected from fifteen Aegean islands (from 35-41o N and 24-28o E) and subsequently incubated in moist chambers. Collections are described and the occurrence and distribution of species is discussed. The species richness of the Aegean coprophilous mycota is lower than might be expected from simple latitudinal considerations, possibly because of a reduced diversity of herbivores and the island nature of the collections.

ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, biogeography, diversity, ecology, fimicoles
New records of fungi, fungus-like organisms, and slime moulds: 1-6
Cvetomir M. (comp.) Denchev
Mycologia Balcanica 5: 93–96 (2008)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548575
Published online: 30 May 2008
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Physarum galbeum is reported for the first time from Turkey. Four species of fungi are recorded for the first time from Bulgaria (Botryosphaeria visci on Viscum album, Erysiphe elevata on Catalpa bignonioides, Erysiphe flexuosa on Aesculus hippocastanum, and Scleroderma polyrhizum). Additionally, Botryosphaeria visci is a new record for Romania.

Aesculus hippocastanum, anamorphic fungi, ascomycetes, Botryosphaeria, Bulgaria, Catalpa, Erysiphe, myxomycetes, Physarum, Romania, Scleroderma, Turkey, Viscum
Lichenized and lichenicolous fungi of Yaylacık (Bolu) and Yenice (Karabük) Research Forests in Turkey
Mehmet Gökhan Halici & Demet Cansaran-Duman
Mycologia Balcanica 4: 97–103 (2007)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548231
Published online: 27 November 2007
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One hundred fifty two taxa belonging to 64 genera are reported from Yaylacık and Yenice Research Forests (Bolu, Karabük, Turkey). Fifty five of 100 taxa are new to the province of Bolu and 107 of 108 taxa are new for the province of Karabük. Buellia schaereri, Caloplaca cretensis, Lichenoconium pyxidatae, and Toninia pennina, are all new records for Turkey. Comments on habitat and substrata are provided for some interesting taxa.

Ascomycota, Black Sea Region, lichens, Turkey
The lichenicolous fungi of Russia: geographical overview and a first checklist
Mikhail P. Zhurbenko
Mycologia Balcanica 4: 105–124 (2007)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548233
Published online: 27 November 2007
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A first checklist of the lichenicolous fungi of Russia is presented, based on all pertinent publications (134 sources) and some unpublished herbarium specimens. The list enumerates 276 species in 97 genera from 285 lichen host species in 102 genera. The knowledge of lichenicolous fungi in various regions of Russia is outlined.

Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, bibliography, fungal diversity, lichen parasites
Studies on Anguillospora longissima: morphotypes or different species?
J. Gönczöl & Ágnes Révay
Mycologia Balcanica 4: 125–130 (2007)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548237
Published online: 27 November 2007
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Sigmoid or crescent shaped conidia with acute basal and apical tips, partly resembling those of Anguillospora longissima are being encountered in streams in Hungary over the past two decades. Conidia are generally shorter and wider than those described by Ingold. Some of them are with characteristic rostrated distal part. In one of the streams abundant conidia have been observed on several occasions. But their identity with A. longissima remained questionable. Monoconidial isolations from the cylindrical, thin, long conidia of A. longissima (“longissima”) and the short, wide, rostrate conidia (“rostrate”) collected in the same stream, yielded different cultures. Conidia from strains differed in dimensions and shapes. The “longissima” strain produced exclusively thin, cylindrical-fusoid, “longissima” conidia exactly fitting those described by Ingold. In one of the “rostrate” strains mostly “rostrate” conidia developed. The other “rostrate” strain produced somewhat longer and thinner conidia. However, all of the conidia in both “rostrate” strains, even if some of them overlapped with conidia in the “longissima” strain, could be distinguished by their different degrees in taper. The spatial and temporal distributions of the two types of conidia in Hungary are also discussed.

Anguillospora longissima complex, taxonomy
New and noteworthy species of Verrucaria from Bulgaria
Beata Krzewicka, Dimitar Y. Stoykov & Janusz Nowak
Mycologia Balcanica 4: 131–134 (2007)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548243
Published online: 27 November 2007
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In the Herbarium of the W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences is housed a significant number of lichen specimens collected in Bulgaria by Janusz Nowak. Among them 22 species of Verrucaria are represented. Seven species are reported here for the first time from this country: V. dolosa, V. funckii, V. halizoa, V. hydrela, V. obfuscans, V. parmigerella, and V. procopii. In addition 15 species are reported with new records for Bulgaria.

Bulgaria, lichens, new records, pyrenocarpous species
New records of microfungi from Mt. Strandzha in Bulgaria (south-eastern Europe). I
Elşad Hüseyin & Faruk Selçuk
Mycologia Balcanica 4: 139–142 (2007)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548267
Published online: 27 November 2007
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Seventeen species of non-lichenized ascomycetes, anamorphic fungi, and rust fungi are reported for the first time from Mt. Strandzha in Bulgaria. Eight species among them are new records for the fungi in Bulgaria.

anamorphic fungi, ascomycetes, Bulgaria, fungal diversity, microfungi, Mt. Strandzha, rust fungi
New records of non-lichenized ascomycetes from Mt. Strandzha in Turkey (south-eastern Europe)
Dimitar Y. Stoykov & Cvetomir M. Denchev
Mycologia Balcanica 4: 157–159 (2007)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548321
Published online: 27 November 2007
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Twenty species of non-lichenized ascomycetes are reported from Mt. Strandzha in Turkey. Fifteen of these species are recorded from the Turkish part of this mountain area for the first time.

ascomycetes, fungal diversity, microfungi, Mt. Strandzha, Turkey
Peziza proteana f. sparassoides – a rare taxon for Asian mycobiota from Israel
Gayane S. Barseghyan & Solomon P. Wasser
Mycologia Balcanica 4: 161–164 (2007)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548329
Published online: 27 November 2007
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The “cabbage-head fungus”, Peziza proteana f. sparassoides, is a rare species and yet has been found in northern Israel. Morphological and habitat descriptions, general distribution, illustrations, and taxonomic discussion of P. proteana f. sparassoides are presented in this paper.

"cabbage-head fungus", Israel, Peziza proteana f. sparassoides
Parmelioid lichens of Iran and the Caucasus Region
Mohammad Sohrabi, Teuvo Ahti & Gennadi Urbanavichus
Mycologia Balcanica 4: 21–30 (2007)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2547721
Published online: 20 June 2007
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Fourteen parmelioid species, Cetrelia cetrarioides, Hypogymnia physodes, H. austerodes, H. vittata, Melanelixia subaurifera, Melanohalea elegantula, Parmelia saxatilis, Xanthoparmelia camtschadalis, X. delisei, X. loxodes, X. pokornyi, X. stenophylla, X. tinctina and X. verruculifera, are reported as new to Iran. The taxonomy, nomenclature and distribution of the 76 parmelioid lichen species reported from Iran and Caucasus (Russian Caucasus, Azerbaijan Republic, Georgia and Armenia) are briefly reviewed. Menegazzia subsimilis is reported for the first time from the Caucasus Region.

Armenia, Azerbaijan, Caucasus, Georgia, Iran, lichens, Parmeliaceae, Russia
Aquatic fungi and straminipilous organisms on decomposing fragments of wetland plants
Bazyli Czeczuga, Elżbieta Muszyńska, Anna Godlewska & Bożenna Mazalska
Mycologia Balcanica 4: 31–44 (2007)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2547723
Published online: 20 June 2007
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Straminipilous organisms and fungus species on dead fragments of 25 taxa of wetland plants from three water bodies were investigated. A total of 219 fungal taxa, including 85 straminipilous organisms and 134 fungus species were recorded. The largest number of straminipilous organisms and fungus species occurred on fragments of Lathyrus palustre and Rorippa amphibia (45 and 44 species respectively), the fewest on Calla palustris (20). The most common species were Chytridium xylophilum (on 23 plants), Pythium rostratum (on 15), Pithomyces obscuriseptatus (on all plants), Trinacrium subtile (on 17) and Titaea (Tetracladium) maxilliformis (on 16). The larger numbers of species were recorded in running water (Jaroszówka Spring, Supraśl River, 124 and 122 respectively), with fewest (106) in stagnant water at Dojlidy Pond. Thirty-one taxa were recorded for the first time from Poland.

aquatic fungi, hydrochemistry, Poland, straminipilous organisms, wetland plants
Adaptive growth rates of fungi from Aspergillus niger group in contrasting environments: the Dead Sea and "Evolution Canyon" I (Israel) under different osmostress
Katerina Selezska, Leonid Brodsky & Eviatar Nevo
Mycologia Balcanica 4: 51–60 (2007)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2547759
Published online: 20 June 2007
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Filamentous fungi from Aspergillus niger group were isolated from the hypersaline Dead Sea water 
and the Mediterranean “Evolution Canyon” I, lower Nahal Oren, Mount Carmel. A comparison of growth rates of the strains collected from the Dead Sea and the “European” north- and “African” south-facing slopes of “Evolution Canyon” I, over a range of water activities, was provided. Media adjustments were made with different volumes of Dead Sea water. Strains from all habitats showed optimal growth rates at 5 % of Dead Sea water (aw 0.983) and ceased growth at 65 % of Dead Sea water (0.785 aw). However, significant interpopulation growth differences were detected (by the non-parametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov test) at different aw. Under low salinities (< 15 %), “Evolution Canyon” I strains significantly differ from Dead Sea water strains in distributions of growth rates. Under high salinities (> 40 %), there is the same divergence of “Evolution Canyon” I strains vs. Dead Sea water strains, and some divergence between “African” and “European” slopes appears. “African” slope and “European” slope populations are significantly different in growth rates under 40 % salinity and have a tendency to be different under 45 % and 50 % volumes of Dead Sea water. We conclude that the A. niger group isolated from the Dead Sea water is more resistant, and the “African” slope population has a tendency to be more resistant than the “European” slope to stress associated with low-water activity. We suppose that these patterns are adaptive.

Aspergillus niger group, Dead Sea water, growth rate, water activity stress
Lichenized fungi of Golestan National Park (NE Iran)
Mohammad Sohrabi & Harrie J. M. Sipman
Mycologia Balcanica 4: 87–92 (2007)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2547960
Published online: 20 June 2007
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Based on evaluation of literature and identification of recent collections, 137 species of lichenized fungi are listed for Golestan National Park, NE Iran; of these, one genus and 14 species are first reports for the country.

Golestan National Park, Iran, lichenized fungi, lichens, mycota
Production of lipase and toxic metabolites by Cladosporium cladosporioides under varied conditions
Stephen O. Fapohunda
Mycologia Balcanica 3: 89–93 (2006)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2547534
Published online: 28 December 2006
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Cladosporium cladosporioides was investigated for the production of lipase and toxic metabolites under varied conditions. Shea butter and groundnut oil promoted lipase elaboration. As the species ages in broth, lipase production increases and a considerable growth accompanied the lowering of pH to 4.0. Also some antifungal metabolites were produced, although they did not have any effect on Mucor hiemalis and Aspergillus flavus. Active charcoal was an effective adsorbent of the antimicrobial secreted into the broth.

Cladosporium cladosporioides, lipolytic activity, toxigenic fungi
Llimoniella caloplacae sp. nova (Leothiales), a new lichenicolous fungus on Caloplaca borysthenica sp. nova (Lecanorales, Ascomycota)
Sergey Kondratyuk, Alexander Khodosovtsev & Ingvar Kärnefelt
Mycologia Balcanica 3: 95–98 (2006)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2547540
Published online: 28 December 2006
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Llimoniella caloplacae S. Kondr. & Khodosovtsev sp. nova growing on Caloplaca borysthenica Khodosovtsev & S. Kondr. sp. nova from naked loess and mosses in the Festuco-Limonetea plant communities of the southern part of Ukraine are described, illustrated, and compared with allied taxa.

Caloplaca, lichenicolous fungi, Llimoniella, taxonomy, Ukraine
New and interesting lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from Serbia
Sanja Savić, Leif Tibell & Mikhail Andreev
Mycologia Balcanica 3: 99–106 (2006)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2547547
Published online: 28 December 2006
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A list of lichens from Serbia is presented, comprising species new to Serbia or have been recorded once or a few times only; a few lichenicolous fungi are also included. The list is based on investigations of material in the lichen collection of the Belgrade Natural History Museum, together with that collected by the authors. In all, 54 species of lichens and eight lichenicolous fungi are reported from Serbia for the first time. The lichen genera Brodoa, Cornicularia, Hypocenomyce, Pycnora, Pyrenocollema, Rhizoplaca, Schaereria, and Solenopsora, and the lichenicolous genera Abrothallus, Carbonea, Cercidospora, Lichenodiplis, Muellerella, Scutula, and Vouauxiella are new to Serbia. Additional localities are given for 97 lichen species, for which only a few localities have been published.

biodiversity, fungal diversity, lichenicolous fungi, lichenized fungi, Serbia
Genus Golovinomyces (Erysiphales) in Israel: species composition, host range, and distribution
Svitlana O. Voytyuk, Vasyl P. Heluta, Solomon P. Wasser & Eviatar Nevo
Mycologia Balcanica 3: 131–142 (2006)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2547590
Published online: 28 December 2006
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A critical revision of all available, previously collected in Israel specimens of Golovinomyces species and respective reference data was made. In addition, extensive herbarium materials were collected here by authors. As a result, species composition of ten species from the genus Golovinomyces was established. Three of the species, namely, G. cynoglossi, G. echinopis, and G. verbasci, were recorded for the first time for Israel. Also, incorrect identification of Neoerysiphe cumminsiana as Erysiphe cichoracearum on Filago eriocephala, Hedypnois cretica, Lagoseris sancta, Phagnalon rupestre, Picris amalecitana, P. galilaea, Rhagadiolus stellatus, Senecio vernalis, Thrincia tuberosa, and Tolpis virgata was revealed.

Erysiphales, Golovinomyces, Neoerysiphe, species composition, Israel
Aquatic fungi and chromistan organisms (fungus-like organisms) growing on dead individuals of free-floating plants in water bodies of north-eastern Poland
Bazyli Czeczuga, Mariola Kozłowska, Anna Godlewska, Elżbieta Muszyńska & Bożenna Mazalska
Mycologia Balcanica 3: 143–153 (2006)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2547593
Published online: 28 December 2006
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The authors investigated aquatic fungi and chromistan organisms growing on the dead specimens of 11 species of free-floating plants in the water from three limnological and trophical different water bodies (spring, river and pond). On the specimens investigated plants in the water of water bodies of north-eastern Poland they identified 129 species including 57 chromistan organisms and 72 fungus species. The most common taxa were Aphanomyces laevis, Thraustotheca clavata, Pythium inflatum, P. rostratum, Anguillospora filiformis, A. pseudolongissima, Angulospora aquatica, Heliscus submersus, Lemonniera aquatica, Pithomyces obscuriseptatus, Tetracladium marchalianum, Tricellula aquatica. Most fungus species were observed on the specimens of Utricularia minor, U. vulgaris (each 36) and Hydrocharis morsus-ranae (34), fewest on Lemna gibba (22), Aldrowanda vesiculosa and Lemna minor (each 23). The most taxa were growing in the water from River Supraśl (64), the fewest in the water from Spring Jaroszówka (55). A number of chromistan organisms and fungus species (2 and 11 respectively) appeared new to Polish waters.

chromistan organisms, free-floating plants, hydrochemistry, Poland, water bodies, water fungi
Macrofungal diversity of Hasandağı Mountain and Göreme District in Turkey
Hasan H. Doğan & Aziz Türkoğlu
Mycologia Balcanica 3: 173–178 (2006)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2547613
Published online: 28 December 2006
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The present study reports on specimens of macrofungi collected in different localities of Hasandağı Mountain and Göreme District, in the period 1999-2001. The field and laboratory studies resulted in the identification of 66 taxa, belonging to two classes and 22 families. Among them, eight taxa belong to Ascomycota and 62 to Basidiomycota. Moreover, two taxa, Peziza moravecii and Coprinus leiocephalus, are recorded for the first time for the Turkish mycota.

fungal diversity, Göreme District, Hasandağı Mountain, new records, Turkey
Current knowledge of Diaporthales (Ascomycota) in Bulgaria
Dimitar Y. Stoykov & Cvetomir M. Denchev
Mycologia Balcanica 3: 179–185 (2006)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2547619
Published online: 28 December 2006
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The known data on the diversity of the Diaporthales in Bulgaria are summarized and briefly discussed. For each taxon, the distribution throughout the country along with the literature sources referring to it and the herbarium acronym of the kept specimens are given. The information about the anamorphs of some diaporthalean species is also included. The species distribution by floristic regions is presented in a table.

ascomycetes, Bulgaria, Diaporthaceae, fungal diversity, Gnomoniaceae, Melanconidaceae, Valsaceae
Checklist of the lichens of Serbia
Sanja Savić & Leif Tibell
Mycologia Balcanica 3: 187–215 (2006)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2547621
Published online: 28 December 2006
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A list of 586 species lichenized fungi of Serbia is presented, which summarizes all records since 1859 and provides a comprehensive bibliography of sources containing Serbian records. Synonyms mainly at the species level, relevant for the Serbian records are included.

bibliography, biodiversity, fungal diversity, lichenized fungi
Genetic diversity among strains of Sordaria fimicola from contrasting environments
Aaron Rottenberg, Isabella Grishkan & Eviatar Nevo
Mycologia Balcanica 3: 1–5 (2006)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2547286
Published online: 26 April 2006
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Genetic diversity was studied in populations of the soil fungus Sordaria fimicola at climate-contrasting environments using 132 AFLP markers. Six populations were tested from opposing slopes at ‘Evolution Canyon’ in Nahal Oren, Israel: three (upper, middle, and lower) from the harsher, drier south facing slope and the parallel three from the lusher, milder north facing slope. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that more genetic diversity among populations of S. fimicola was derived from between slopes than from within slopes; and F-statistics analysis suggested low estimations of inter-slope gene flow. In addition, clustering analysis (UPGMA) clearly grouped the six wild populations according to their appropriate slopes. These findings suggest that migration of S. fimicola between the two slopes of ‘Evolution Canyon’ is relatively small and some isolation barriers between opposing populations probably exist.

AFLP, ascomycetes, Evolution Canyon, Israel, Mediterranean
Contribution to the lichenized and lichenicolous fungi in Bulgaria. I
Jan Vondrák
Mycologia Balcanica 3: 7–11 (2006)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2547294
Published online: 26 April 2006
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Records of 46 lichen species and 5 species of lichenicolous fungi in Bulgaria are presented, of which 13, Agonimia tristicula, Candelariella lutella, C. plumbea, Intralichen christiansenii, Lichenostigma elongata, Lichinella nigritella, Marchandiomyces corallinus, Muellerella pygmaea var. athallina, Rinodina pityrea, Sarcopyrenia gibba var. geisleri, Scoliciosporum sarothamni, Staurothele ambrosiana, and Xanthoria nowakii are new to Bulgaria and several others are new to the Rhodopes and Black Sea coast.

Black Sea coast, Bulgaria, lichens, lichenicolous fungi, the Rhodopes
Aquatic fungi and fungus-like organisms growing on driffing in water nuts of seven birch species
Bazyli Czeczuga, Elżbieta Muszyńska, Anna Godlewska, Bożenna Mazalska, Mariola Kozłowska & Anna Zubrzycka
Mycologia Balcanica 3: 47–54 (2006)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2547347
Published online: 26 April 2006
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Aquatic fungi and fungus-like organisms, growing on nuts of seven birch species (Betula gracilis, B. humilis, B. lutea, B. nana, B. papyrifera, B. pubescens and B. verrucosa) found in the water of three limnologically and trophically different water bodies (spring, river and pond), were investigated. The total of 63 species, including 23 fungus-like organisms and 40 fungal species were found on the nuts of the investigated birches. The most common species were Karlingia rosea, Nowakowskiella macrospora, Achlya americana, Aphanomyces laevis, Saprolegnia ferax, Acrodictys bambusicola, Angulospora aquatica, Arbusculina fragmentans, Canalisporium caribense, Heliscus lugdunensis, Pithomyces obscuriseptatus, Tetracladium marchalianum and Tripospermum camelopardus ). Most of the species were observed on the nuts of Betula verrucosa (49 species) and the fewest on the nuts of Betula nana (42). In Cypisek spring, the number of fungal species and fungus-like organisms on the nuts was closely associated with the concentration of chlorides.However, in Supraśl River and Dojlidy pond it was associated with the sulphates concentration (in both cases negative correlation).

fungus-like organisms, hydrochemistry, nuts of birch, Poland, water bodies, aguatic fungi
Species/area curves for lichens on gypsum in Turkey
Volker John & Ayşen Türk
Mycologia Balcanica 3: 55–60 (2006)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2547349
Published online: 26 April 2006
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Twenty-nine lichen species on gypsum soil and crystalline gypsum and five species on plant debris influenced by gypsum in Turkey have been investigated. Six species, Acarospora nodulosa, Acarospora placodiiformis, Aspicilia lacunosa, Caloplaca thuringiaca, Fulgensia desertorum and Lecidea circinarioides are new to Turkey, some records considerably extending their known distribution. Species/area curves show the localities and the lichen species as highly endangered, with on average 4 localities accounting for 50 % of the detected number of species; 29 species in 10 localities correspond to 75.5 % of the statistical optimum of ca 37 species expected in an endless number of plots. In order to account for 90 % of the species, 34 localities need to be investigated. Not only should more localities be searched for and studies, but some of those already investigated need to be protected.

biodiversity, conservation, gypsum soil, lichens, species/area curves, Turkey
Contribution to the lichenized and lichenicolous fungi in Bulgaria. II, the genus Caloplaca
Jan Vondrák & Štěpánka Slavíková-Bayerová
Mycologia Balcanica 3: 61–69 (2006)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2547353
Published online: 26 April 2006
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An annotated list of Caloplaca species occurring in Bulgaria, mainly the Rhodopes, Black Sea coast, and Pirin Mountains, is provided. Based on our collections, 50 taxa are listed, of which 17 are reported for the first time from the country: Caloplaca adriatica, C. albolutescens, C. cerinella, C. chrysodeta, C. crenulatella, C. erodens, C. flavocitrina, C. aff. furax, C. fuscoatroides, C. hungarica, C. inconnexa var. inconnexa, C. inconnexa var. nesodes, C. marmorata, C. obscurella, C. polycarpa, C. tiroliensis, and C. xerica. C. aff. furax is probably an undescribed taxon resembling the Mediterranean C. furax, but differing in particular characters.

biodiversity, Black Sea coast, Caloplaca, lichens, Mount Strandzha, Pirin Mountains, the Rhodopes
Red List of fungi in Bulgaria
Melania M. Gyosheva, Cvetomir M. Denchev, Evtimia G. Dimitrova, Boris Assyov, Roumyana D. Petrova & Georgi T. Stoichev
Mycologia Balcanica 3: 81–87 (2006)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2547362
Published online: 26 April 2006
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The first official Red List of fungi in Bulgaria is presented where the current IUCN Red List categories are put into practice. It includes 215 species of ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, as follows: 37 Critically Endangered (CR), 105 Endangered (EN), 40 Vulnerable (VU), 14 Near Threatened (NT), and 19 Data Deficient (DD).

Bulgaria, conservation of fungi, Red List
The current state of knowledge of fungal diversity in Sicily
Giuseppe Venturella & Alessandro Saitta
Mycologia Balcanica 2: 193–196 (2005)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2547111
Published online: 11 November 2005
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Current knowledge of fungal diversity in Sicily is reported based on historical data and recently field records. A preliminary list of rare and infrequent fungal species is also provided.

Mediterranean, fungal diversity, Sicily
Habitats of Tuber melanosporum in the central Iberian Peninsula (High Tajo Basin)
Luis G. García-Montero, Gabriella D. Masimo, Cristina Pascual, Miguel A. Casermeiro & José L. Manjón
Mycologia Balcanica 2: 197–203 (2005)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2547113
Published online: 11 November 2005
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In some European countries, highly prized truffles of the genus Tuber generate more economic benefits than any other woodland product. In this preliminary study of the ecology and truffle producing capacity of Tuber melanosporum in the central region of the Iberian Peninsula, we examined 433 sites producing this truffle in 8 types of high forest habitats associated with Quercus faginea, Q. ilex subsp. ballota, Corylus avellana, Cistus laurifolius, and Tilia platyphyllos. The production of this truffle in these natural, un-managed stands was confirmed in interviews conducted with 14 truffle-gatherers from the Alto Tajo Basin.

Tuber melanosporum, truffle, production
State of the art in truffle knowledge and cultivation in Italy
Mattia Bencivenga
Mycologia Balcanica 2: 205–207 (2005)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2547119
Published online: 11 November 2005
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The presence of truffles in Sicily and perspectives for their cultivation on the island are assessed, with a brief analysis of basic and applied research on truffles and truffle cultivation in Italy, focusing on successful production and on reasons for failure in some artificial truffle-beds. Truffle cultivation has progressed in recent decades and there is now sufficient know-how for creation of productive truffle plantations. Further research is needed on host plant growing techniques.

cultivated truffle-bed, Italy, truffles, Tuber
The soils of natural environments for growth of truffles in Italy
Marcello Raglione & Malgorzata Owczarek
Mycologia Balcanica 2: 209–216 (2005)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2547123
Published online: 11 November 2005
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Results from all studies on soils where the main edible truffles occur naturally are assessed. For Tuber melanosporum soils, the main physical and chemical characteristics have been established in the field and in the laboratory. They are always well-aired and have an optimal particle aggregation, good water-drainage, the constant presence of a limestone skeleton, parent material composed of limestone detritus or intensely fractured limestone rocks. Their pHH2O, pHKCl, organic carbon, and EDTA extractable Mn are fundamental parameters to define the suitability of a soil for this species. For T. magnatum, research to date has not been able to determine the main pedological parameters, but has managed to characterize parent material and geomorphological dynamics which lead to the formation of soils suitable for this truffle. Those soils are well-drained and show a great number of pores, with a bulk density always around 1 and constant humidity. For T. aestivum, research has been inconclusive because results have been so variable. That variability can be correlated with a strong genetic variability in this species which, in its several forms, has adapted itself to many soil environments. Not much is known about soil characteristics for T. brumale, except that it prefers soils much more humid than those of other truffles; water stagnation is frequent and EDTA extractable Mn is always much higher. Nearly nothing is known about T. borchii.

Italy, soil characteristics, truffle natural environment of growth, Tuber
A project to develop truffle-growing in Sicily
Dario Cartabellotta, Giuseppe Spartà, Giuseppe Giarrizzo, Alessandro Lazara & Carlo Scibetta
Mycologia Balcanica 2: 217–220 (2005)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2547134
Published online: 11 November 2005
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A project investigating natural truffle-beds in Sicily is presented here, with preliminary data on recorded species and ecological features.

agricultural and forestry administration, Sicily, truffles
A comparative study of the lichens of two cemeteries in Belgrade, Serbia
Mark R.D. Seaward & Volker John
Mycologia Balcanica 2: 65–68 (2005)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2546858
Published online: 30 June 2005
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A comparison of two cemeteries in Belgrade, Serbia, has been made in order to show how the different environmental factors affect their lichen diversity. The importance of cemeteries as refugia for lichens and as habitats for lichen recolonisation under ameliorating conditions in urban areas is stressed.

air pollution, Belgrade, biodiversity, cemeteries, lichens, Serbia
New records of Diaporthales in Bulgaria. I
Dimitar Y. Stoykov
Mycologia Balcanica 2: 69–74 (2005)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2546866
Published online: 30 June 2005
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One genus (Ditopellina) and three species (Ditopellina saccardiana, Gnomonia nantensis, and G. rosae) of Diaporthales are reported as new to Bulgaria. Nine species (Apiognomonia errabunda, Apioplagiostoma carpinicolum, Apioporthella vepris, Ditopellina saccardiana, Gnomonia comari, G. nervisequa, G. rosae, Hypospilina pustula, and Plagiostoma arnastadtiense) are established on new substrata, and 21 species are recorded from new Bulgarian localities.

ascomycetes, Bulgaria, Diaporthales, fungal diversity
Aquatic fungi and fungus-like organisms from decomposing fragments of floating-leaved plants
Bazyli Czeczuga & Elżbieta Muszyńska
Mycologia Balcanica 2: 83–90 (2005)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2546874
Published online: 30 June 2005
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The authors investigated aquatic fungi and chromistan organisms (fungus-like organisms) growing on dead fragments of 7 species of floating-leaved plants (Limnanthemum nymphoides, Nuphar luteum, Nuphar pumilum, Nymphaea alba, Nymphaea candida, Polygonum amphibium f. natans and Potamogeton natans) in the water from three limnological and trophical different water bodies (spring, river and pond). They identified 106 species including 42 chromistan organisms and 64 fungus species, found on the fragments. A number of chromistan organisms and fungus species (Catenomyces persicinus, Nowakowskiella profusa, Polyphagus parasiticus, Rhipidium americanum, Rhipidium interrupta, Rhipidium partenosporum, Sporodina grandis, Endophragmiella latifusiformia, Pseudocercospora manuensis and Saprochaete ramosissima) are recorded as new to Polish waters.

aquatic fungi, floating-leaved plants, fungus-like organisms, Poland
Checklists of the myxomycetes and macromycetes in Turkey
Ertuğrul Sesli & Cvetomir M. Denchev
Mycologia Balcanica 2: 119–160 (2005)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2546937
Published online: 30 June 2005
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This paper attempts to compile available data on Turkish myxomycetes and macromycetes published between 1915 and February, 2005, and obtained from 294 publications. Two main lists of myxomycetes and macromycetes are given where the taxa are alphabetically arranged. The total number of correct names of species, recorded from Turkey and presented in both checklists, is 1778, including 177 myxomycetes and 1601 macromycetes. For each taxon, references are cited. An index of synonyms based on literature records from Turkey is appended. It includes 671 species and infraspecific taxa. Information about the species distribution in the European or/and Asian parts of Turkey is also given.

biodiversity, fungal diversity, macromycetes, myxomycetes, taxonomy, Turkey
First record of Leveillula helichrysi from Germany, including the first description of its anamorph
Herbert Boyle & Uwe Braun
Mycologia Balcanica 2: 179–180 (2005)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2546980
Published online: 30 June 2005
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The powdery mildew fungus Leveillula helichrysi, so far only known from the Ukraine, is recorded, described, and illustrated from Germany, including the anamorph, which has been found for the first time. Based on the anamorph, the correct assignment of this species to Leveillula could be confirmed. L. helichrysi belongs in Leveillula subgen. Obtusispora.

conidial state, distribution, Erysiphales, Leveillula, taxonomy
Ramularia liliicola – a new leaf-spotting hyphomycete from Europe
Nosratollah Ale-Agha, Uwe Braun & Guido Benno Feige
Mycologia Balcanica 2: 181–182 (2005)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2546993
Published online: 30 June 2005
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Ramularia liliicola sp. nov. on living leaves of Lilium candidum and L. martagon from Germany and Slovakia is described, illustrated, discussed, and compared with allied taxa.

anamorphic fungi, Germany, new species, Ramularia, Slovakia
Catalogue of the lichenized and lichenicolous fungi in Bulgaria
Helmut Mayrhofer, Cvetomir M. Denchev, Dimitar Y. Stoykov & Siyka O. Nikolova
Mycologia Balcanica 2: 3–61 (2005)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2546852
Published online: 28 February 2005
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The catalogue of lichenized and lichenicolous fungi of Bulgaria is based mainly on a comprehensive compilation of published data. The lichen mycota as currently known includes 910 taxa (893 species with 6 subspecies, 10 varieties, and 1 forma) of lichenized fungi, 9 species of lichenicolous fungi, and 14 non-lichenized fungi traditionally included in lichenological literature. An index of synonyms based on literature records from Bulgaria is appended. It includes 1625 infrageneric epithets. Eighteen species are reported for Bulgaria for the first time: Adelolecia kolaensis, Anaptychia runcinata, Arthonia calcicola, Bacidina chloroticula, Chaenotheca subroscida, Cladonia klementii, Lecanora saligna, Lecidea swartzioidea, Lepraria rigidula, Lopadium pezizoideum, Nephroma bellum, Opegrapha subelevata, Phaeophyscia endophoenicea, Phlyctis argena, Placopyrenium tatrense, Rinodina mniaraea, R. obnascens, and Tuckermanopsis chlorophylla.

biodiversity, Bulgaria, fungal diversity, lichenicolous fungi, lichenized fungi
A contribution to the study of Leptosphaeriaceae and Phaeosphaeriaceae (Pleosporales) in Bulgaria. I
Dimitar Y. Stoykov
Mycologia Balcanica 1: 125–128 (2004)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2546723
Published online: 30 November 2004
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Seven species of Pleosporales (Leptosphaeria linearis, L. macrospora, Nodulosphaeria megalospora, N. modesta, N. pellita, Phaeosphaeria emilii, P. juncicola) are recorded for the first time from Bulgaria; three species (Leptosphaeria agnita, L. doliolum, Nodulosphaeria dolioloides) are reported on substrata new for Bulgaria; five species are recorded from new localities.

Bulgaria, Leptosphaeriaceae, new records, Phaeosphaeriaceae, Pleosporales
Diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi in natural beech forests in Transcarpathia (Ukraine): a preliminary survey
Nicolas Küffer, Pavlo S. Lovas & Béatrice Senn-Irlet
Mycologia Balcanica 1: 129–134 (2004)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2546727
Published online: 30 November 2004
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We found 131 species of wood-inhabiting fungi in two different beech forest types in the Carpathian Mountains of Ukraine. The corticioid and poroid aphyllophorales (Basidiomycetes) showed a remarkably high species richness. Among them species highly depending on large amounts of dead wood, especially logs for growth and fruiting, such as Dentipellis fragilis. The woodruff beech forests (Galio-Fagenion) harbour a greater number of fungal species than the fir beech forests (Abieti-Fagenion). These beech forests in the Carpathian Mountains provide an interesting opportunity to study the beech forests in Europe in their natural appearance, not or hardly influenced by human activity.

beech forest, Carpathian Mountains, species richness, Ukraine, wood-inhabiting fungi
Neoerysiphe galii, a new powdery mildew fungus in Israel
Svitlana O. Voytyuk, Vasyl P. Heluta & Eviatar Nevo
Mycologia Balcanica 1: 135–137 (2004)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2546733
Published online: 30 November 2004
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Information about Neoerysiphe galii (Erysiphales), a powdery mildew fungus new for Israel, is provided. The necessity of additional examination of Neoerysiphe and Golovinomyces specimens collected on Galium species is emphasised since some of these host species can be infected, apart from N. galii and G. riedlianus, by another fungus similar to G. cichoraceorum.

Erysiphales, Israel, Neoerysiphe galii, powdery mildew fungi
New records of lichenized fungi from the Near East
Marina Temina, Solomon P. Wasser & Eviatar Nevo
Mycologia Balcanica 1: 139–151 (2004)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2546737
Published online: 30 November 2004
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Seven species of lichenized fungi (Bagliettoa parmigerella, Collema callopismum, Dermatocarpon intestiniforme, Opegrapha demutata, O. subelevata, Phaeophyscia hirsuta, and Rinodinella dubyanoides) that are new to the Near East were reported. New localities of 54 other species were recorded. Data on distribution of these species in various regions of the Near East and in the world were given.

lichen diversity, Near East, new records
First report of Phomopsis diachenii in Bulgaria
Rossitza Rodeva & Jutta Gabler
Mycologia Balcanica 1: 153–157 (2004)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2546743
Published online: 30 November 2004
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The occurrence of Phomopsis diachenii on caraway (Carum carvi) was established in 2001. This is the first report of P. diachenii in Bulgaria. The pathogen produced black pycnidia and two types of conidia (alpha- and beta-conidia) on infected plant tissues as well as on nutrient media. Another Phomopsis species was found on the same host plant in 2003. It produced mainly alpha-conidia. In addition, mature perithecia assigned to Diaporthe angelicae were observed on stem fragments taken from annual caraway (C. carvi var. annuum) in 2003. Phomopsis spp. were isolated from wild growing caraway and Heracleum plants collected in the region of Rila monastery, too. All fungi mentioned were studied on the host plant and in agar culture.

Bulgaria, caraway, Carum carvi, Diaporthe angelicae, Phomopsis diachenii, Phomopsis sp.
New data for Pezizales in Bulgaria
Evtimia Dimitrova & Boris Assyov
Mycologia Balcanica 1: 1–3 (2004)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2545143
Published online: 09 February 2004
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Three species of operculate discomycetes that are new to Bulgaria and three that are rare are reported and illustrated: Otidea propinquata, Peziza depressa, Pseudoplectania sphagnophila, Helvella ephippium, Octospora humosa, and Trichophaea hybrida. New localities of 10 other species are also given.
ascomycetes, discomycetes, fungi of Bulgaria, Pezizales
New records of Bulgarian Mycosphaerella (Ascomycetes). II
Violeta I. Fakirova & Cvetomir M. Denchev
Mycologia Balcanica 1: 5–8 (2004)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2545173
Published online: 09 February 2004
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Mycosphaerella ambigua, M. bracteophila, M. effigurata, M. eriophila, M. eryngina, M. euphorbiae, M. hieracii, M. hyperici, M. implexicola, M. molluginis, M. polycarpa, M. populi, M. pterophila, M. sarracenica, M. urticae-dioicae, and M. viburni are reported for Bulgaria. Most species are new for Southeast Europe. The morphological features of these species are described and illustrated.

ascomycetes, fungal diversity, fungi of Bulgaria, Mycosphaerella, taxonomy
New records of Bulgarian ascomycetes
Violeta I. Fakirova
Mycologia Balcanica 1: 41–43 (2004)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2545784
Published online: 09 February 2004
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Three genera, Lophiosphaera, Montagnula, and Trematosphaeria, and 36 species of ascomycetes are reported for the first time from Bulgaria.

ascomycetes, fungal diversity, fungi of Bulgaria
New records of Gnomoniaceae (Diaporthales) in Romania
Dimitar Y. Stoykov
Mycologia Balcanica 1: 51–53 (2004)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2545805
Published online: 09 February 2004
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Three species of the Gnomoniaceae, Gnomonia betulina, Hypospilina pustula, and Plagiostoma arnstadtiense, are reported as new to Romania. Gnomonia setacea is found on a new substratum.

ascomycetes, Diaporthales, Gnomoniaceae, Romania
New records of anamorphic fungi from Bulgaria
Ekaterina F. Sameva
Mycologia Balcanica 1: 55–57 (2004)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2545808
Published online: 09 February 2004
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The anamorphic genus Phloeosporina (Ph. fraxini) and Septoria dearnessii are reported for the first time from Bulgaria. Seven fungus-host combinations, new for Bulgaria, are also recorded.

anamorphic fungi, Bulgaria, Phloeosporina, phytopathogenic fungi
Occurrence of the araneogenous fungus Gibellula pulchra in Turkey
Faruk Selçuk, Elşad Hüseyin & Muhammet Gaffaroğlu
Mycologia Balcanica 1: 61–62 (2004)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2545820
Published online: 09 February 2004
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The genus Gibellula is reported for the first time from Turkey. Gibellula pulchra on a spider is a new addition to the Turkish mycobiota. This fungus was found in a subtropical forest in canyons.

fungi on spiders, Gibellula pulchra, new record, Turkish mycobiota
Addition to the Erysiphales of Bulgaria
Gavril Negrean & Cvetomir M. Denchev
Mycologia Balcanica 1: 63–66 (2004)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2545829
Published online: 09 February 2004
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Of the 73 specimens of Erysiphales collected in the north-eastern part of Bulgaria in 1996, 1998, and 1999, and another 3 Bulgarian specimens present in herb. BUCM, one species (Erysiphe caulicola (Petr.) U. Braun), and 42 fungus-host combinations are reported for the first time from this country. In addition, 17 new localities for previously known such combinations are recorded from Black Sea Coast, Northeast Bulgaria, and Sofia region.

ascomycetes, Bulgaria, Erysiphales, fungal diversity