Articles by Taxonomic Group

Contributions to the smut fungi of Africa. 4. Taxonomic re-examination and emended description of Bauerago capensis

Teodor T. Denchev & Cvetomir M. Denchev
MYCOBIOTA 8: 1–7 (2018)
doi: https://doi.org/10.12664/mycobiota.2018.08.01
Published online: 18 January 2018
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A type specimen of Bauerago capensis, a smut fungus endemic to the Cape Floristic Region, is re-examined and designated as a lectotype. An emended description of that species and for the first time, illustrations of the spores in SEM are presented.

Africa,Bauerago,Cape Floristic Region,Juncaceae,Juncus capensis,Microbotryaceae,smut fungi,South Afr

Contributions to the smut fungi of Africa. 3. First record of Microbotryum polygoni-alati

Teodor T. Denchev & Cvetomir M. Denchev
MYCOBIOTA 7: 19–24 (2017)
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.12664/mycobiota.2017.07.04
Published online: 31 December 2017
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Microbotryum polygoni-alati, known only from India and China, is reported for the first time from Africa (from Ethiopia).

Africa, Ethiopia, Microbotryaceae, Microbotryum polygoni-alati, Persicaria nepalensis, Polygonaceae, smut fungi, taxonomy

Diversity of the genus Ganoderma in Punjab (India)

Gurpreet Kaur, Avneet Pal Singh & Gurpaul Singh Dhingra
MYCOBIOTA 7: 25–49 (2017)
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.12664/mycobiota.2017.07.05
Published online: 31 December 2017
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Twelve species of the genus Ganoderma, G. amboinense, G. applanatum, G. australe, G. crebrostriatum, G. curtisii, G. lobatum, G. lucidum, G. mediosinense, G. parvulum, G. ramosissimum, G. resinaceum, and G. subumbraculum, are reported and illustrated from different localities of state of Punjab (India) and its capital Chandigarh, which is also a union territory. Of these, G. mediosinense is a new record for India, while G. amboinense, G. australe, G. curtisii, G. crebrostriatum, G. lobatum, G. parvulum, G. ramosissimum, G. resinaceum, and G. subumbraculum are reported for the first time from the state of Punjab. A key to all twelve species from the study area is presented.

Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota, Ganoderma, India, laccate polypores, Punjab, taxonomy

Contribution to the smut fungi of Africa. 2. A second locality of Anthracocystis compacta

Teodor T. Denchev & Cvetomir M. Denchev
MYCOBIOTA 7: 13–18 (2017)
doi: https://doi.org/10.12664/mycobiota.2017.07.03
Published online: 28 April 2017
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Anthracocystis compacta, known only from the type collection from Senegal, is reported from a second locality, from Mali.

Africa, Anthracocystis compacta, Cymbopogon giganteus, Mali, Senegal, smut fungi, taxonomy, Ustilaginales

A noteworthy range extension for Haradaea moenchiae-manticae, a rarely reported smut fungus

Teodor T. Denchev & Cvetomir M. Denchev
MYCOBIOTA 7: 7–12 (2017)
doi: https://doi.org/10.12664/mycobiota.2017.07.02
Published online: 26 April 2017
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Haradaea moenchiae-manticae is reported for the first time from the Iberian Peninsula (from Spain), on Moenchia erecta subsp. erecta, and from Africa (from Morocco and Algeria), on a new host plant, M. erecta subsp. octandra.

Africa, Algeria, Haradaea moenchiae-manticae, Iberian Peninsula, Microbotryaceae, Moenchia, Morocco, smut fungi, Spain, taxonomy

Additional finds of Anthracoidea melanostachyae (Anthracoideaceae)

Teodor T. Denchev, Cvetomir M. Denchev, Igor V. Karatygin & Ernst Vitek
MYCOBIOTA 6: 39–45 (2016)
doi: https://doi.org/10.12664/mycobiota.2016.06.04
Published online: 23 May 2016
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Anthracoidea melanostachyae, previously known from Iran and Tajikistan on Carex melanostachya, is reported from Armenia and Azerbaijan on the same host plant, and from a new Tajik locality, on a new host plant, C. songorica.

Anthracoidea melanostachyae, Anthracoideaceae, Armenia, Asia, Azerbaijan, Carex melanostachya, Carex songorica, Cyperaceae, Iran, smut fungi, Tajikistan, taxonomy

Athelia singularis and Leptosporomyces mundus (Basidiomycota) new to Finland

Panu Kunttu, Matti Kulju & Heikki Kotiranta
MYCOBIOTA 6: 29–37 (2016)
doi: https://doi.org/10.12664/mycobiota.2016.06.03
Published online: 04 April 2016
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The first Finnish records of Athelia singularis and Leptosporomyces mundus (Basidiomycota) are reported and notes of their habitats and substrata are given. The descriptions of the species are presented as well as their microscopical drawings. The taxonomy of two species is briefly discussed. The new records derived from Northern Finland, Rovaniemi, Pisavaara Strict Nature Reserve.

aphyllophoroid fungi, Athelia, biogeography, corticioid, distribution, Finland, fungal diversity, Leptosporomyces

Contribution to the smut fungi of Africa. 1

Teodor T. Denchev & Cvetomir M. Denchev
MYCOBIOTA 6: 21–27 (2016)
doi: https://doi.org/10.12664/mycobiota.2016.06.02
Published online: 06 March 2016
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Four species of smut fungi are reported for the first time from the following areas: Melanopsichium pennsylvanicum from Egypt and Madagascar, Sporisorium foveolati from the Canary Islands and Somalia, Sporisorium lanigeri from Somalia, on a new host, Cymbopogon pospischilii, and Urocystis corsica from the Canary Islands. Echinochloa stagnina is a new host of Ustilago trichophora in Africa (based on a record from Zambia).

Africa,Canary Islands,Egypt,Madagascar,Melanopsichium,Poaceae,smut fungi,Somalia,Sporisorium,taxonom

First record of Tilletia lolioli (Tilletiaceae) from Armenia

Teodor T. Denchev & Cvetomir M. Denchev
MYCOBIOTA 5: 27–31 (2015)
doi: https://doi.org/10.12664/mycobiota.2015.05.05
Published online: 05 October 2015
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Tilletia lolioli, previously known only from Lebanon and Iran, is reported from Armenia.

Armenia, Asia, Loliolum subulatum, Nardurus, Poaceae, smut fungi, taxonomy, Tilletia, Tilletiales

A new record of Leucocintractia scleriae (Anthracoideaceae) from Japan

Teodor T. Denchev, Tomomi Masaki & Cvetomir M. Denchev
MYCOBIOTA 5: 21–25 (2015)
doi: https://doi.org/10.12664/mycobiota.2015.05.04
Published online: 27 September 2015
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Leucocintractia scleriae is reported for the first time from Japan.

Anthracoideaceae, Asia, Cyperaceae, Japan, Leucocintractia, Rhynchospora corymbosa, smut fungi, taxonomy, Ustilaginales

First record of Langdonia aristidae (Ustilaginales) from Madagascar

Teodor T. Denchev, Maria S. Vorontsova & Cvetomir M. Denchev
MYCOBIOTA 5: 15–20 (2015)
doi: https://doi.org/10.12664/mycobiota.2015.05.03
Published online: 30 June 2015
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Langdonia aristidae is reported for the first time from Madagascar, on a new host plant, Aristida tenuissima.

Africa, Aristida, Langdonia aristidae, Madagascar, smut fungi, Sporisorium,taxonomy, Ustilaginales

First record of Hyphobasidiofera malaysiana (Basidiomycota) from Vietnam

Vadim A. Mel'nik, Alina V. Alexandrova, Ivan V. Zmitrovich, Uwe Braun & Eugene S. Popov
MYCOBIOTA 5: 1–5 (2015)
doi: https://doi.org/10.12664/mycobiota.2015.05.01
Published online: 03 May 2015
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The basidiomycete Hyphobasidiofera malaysiana, described from Malaysia, has been found in Vietnam for the first time. This hitherto rarely encountered species is described, illustrated and discussed.

basidiomycetes, distribution, south-east Asia, taxonomy, Vietnam

Contribution to the smut fungi (Ustilaginomycetes) of Togo and Benin

Teodor T. Denchev, Harrie J.M. Sipman & Cvetomir M. Denchev
MYCOBIOTA 4: 25–32 (2014)
doi: https://doi.org/10.12664/mycobiota.2014.04.02
Published online: 31 December 2014
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Sporisorium nyassae is reported for the first time from Togo and Benin. Hyparrhenia nyassae and H. diplandra var. mutica are recorded as new host plants of Sporisorium nyassae. Based on the current revision, Sporisorium barcinonense is removed from the list of smut fungi in Togo. Cintractia limitata is reported for the first time from Benin. All species of smut fungi known from Togo and Benin and their host plants are listed.

Benin,Cintractia,Cyperus,Hyparrhenia,smut fungi,Sporisorium,taxonomy,Togo

Some rare and interesting Conocybe found in Vyzhnytsia National Nature Park (Ukrainian Carpathians)

Mykola P. Prydiuk
MYCOBIOTA 4: 1–24 (2014)
doi: https://doi.org/10.12664/mycobiota.2014.04.01
Published online: 26 November 2014
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The data about some interesting representatives of the genus Conocybe found in Ukrainian Carpathians (Vyzhnytsia National Nature Park) are presented. A total of 14 taxa (including three varieties) were found. Four species and one variety new for this country (C. apala, C. inocybeoides, C. juniana var. sordescens, C. magnispora, and C. tuxlaensis) are reported, as well as some previously unknown localities for a further 9 taxa (C. echinata, C. hexagonospora, C. juniana var. subsejuncta, C. macrospora, C. pulchella, C. rostellata, C. siliginea, C. subpallida, and C. subxerophytica var. brunnea).

Bolbitiaceae,Conocybe,rare species,taxonomy,Ukraine,Ukrainian Carpathians

Two new Entyloma species (Entylomatales, Ustilaginomycotina) from the USA

Teodor T. Denchev, Cvetomir M. Denchev & Roger G. Shivas
MYCOBIOTA 3: 35–39 (2013)
doi: https://doi.org/10.12664/mycobiota.2013.03.04
Published online: 17 December 2013
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Two new Entyloma species, E. castillejae on Castilleja (Orobanchaceae) and E. violae on Viola (Violaceae), are described and illustrated from the USA.

Castilleja,Entyloma,Orobanchaceae,smut fungi,taxonomy,USA,Viola

The genus Anthracoidea (Anthracoideaceae) in Japan and some adjacent regions

Teodor T. Denchev, Cvetomir M. Denchev, Muneo Michikawa & Makoto Kakishima
MYCOBIOTA 2: 1–125 (2013)
doi: https://doi.org/10.12664/mycobiota.2013.02.01
Published online: 23 July 2013
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This study endeavors to clarify the taxonomy of Anthracoidea species occurring in East Asia. Being a cosmopolitan genus, more widely distributed in temperate and subarctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere, Anthracoidea is insufficiently studied in East Asia, particularly in Japan and Korea. A comprehensive account of the species composition and distribution of the Anthracoidea species in Japan is presented herein. Further, information about the Anthracoidea species in the Kuriles, Sakhalin, and Korean Peninsula is also provided. Three new smut fungi are described and illustrated as follows: Anthracoidea caricis-grallatoriae on Carex grallatoria from Japan, Anthracoidea lanceolatae on Carex lanceolata from South Korea, and Anthracoidea pseudomichelii on Carex michelii from Central Europe. For Cintractia japonica on ‘Carex capillacea’, a new combination, Anthracoidea japonica, is proposed. Anthracoidea grallatoriae Vánky is a superfluous name and a synonym of A. japonica. The existence of the type specimen of Cintractia subglobosa S. Ito makes the lectotypification of C. subglobosa redundant. Similarly, a lectotype of Cintractia variabilis S. Ito is also made redundant. Based on a comparative morphological investigation, 20 Anthracoidea species were established in Japan, all of them on host plants of Carex. In addition to Anthracoidea caricis-grallatoriae, six other species, A. capillaris, A. humilis, A. irregularis, A. karii, A. michelii, and A. sempervirentis, are reported for the first time from Japan. Eight plant species are reported as new hosts of Anthracoidea species in Japan: Carex gmelinii with Anthracoidea buxbaumii; Carex foliosissima, C. mitrata, C. morrowii, C. nervata, and C. subebracteata with Anthracoidea caryophylleae; Carex fernaldiana and C. tenuinervis with Anthracoidea microsora. Ten fungus-host combinations, Anthracoidea capillaris on Carex tenuiformis, A. caryophylleae on Carex leucochlora, A. caryophylleae on Carex mitrata, A. caryophylleae on Carex foliosissima, A. caryophylleae on Carex morrowii, A. humilis on Carex lanceolata, A. karii on Carex omiana var. monticola, A. microsora on Carex fernaldiana, A. microsora on Carex tenuinervis, and A. sempervirentis on Carex makinoensis, are new for science. Additional distribution records are given for some Anthracoidea species hitherto known from Japan. The genus Anthracoidea is recorded for the first time from the Korean Peninsula, with three species from South Korea: A. caryophylleae on Carex leucochlora, A. lanceolatae on Carex lanceolata, and A. siderostictae on Carex siderosticta. Two species, Anthracoidea caryophylleae and A. variabilis, are reported for the first time from the Kuriles. Anthracoidea variabilis is a new species for Russia. Three species, Anthracoidea globularis, A. heterospora, and A. paniceae, are reported for the first time from Sakhalin. The study further found that four fungus-host combinations had been wrongly recorded in the literature, specifically, Carex cespitosa is not a host of Anthracoidea variabilis; Carex foliosissima and C. conica are not hosts of Anthracoidea microsora; and Carex tarumensis is not a host of Anthracoidea buxbaumii.

Anthracoidea,Anthracoideaceae,Carex,Japan,Korea,Kuriles,Sakhalin,smut fungi

Aizoago, a new genus, and two new species of smut fungi (Ustilaginales) on Tetragonia(Aizoaceae) in Australia

Kálmán Vánky & Roger G. Shivas
MYCOBIOTA 1: 1–7 (2013)
doi: https://doi.org/10.12664/mycobiota.2013.01.01
Published online: 11 January 2013
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A new genus of smut fungi, Aizoago, is described and illustrated, with two new species, A. tetragoniae on Tetragonia diptera and A. tetragonioides on T. tetragonioides (Aizoaceae), from Australia.

Aizoaceae,Aizoago tetragoniae,Aizoago tetragonioides,Australian biodiversity,taxonomy,Tetragonia,smut fungi

Eriocortex eriocauli, gen. et sp. nov. (Ustilaginomycetes) from Australia

Kálmán Vánky, Roger G. Shivas, Matthew D. Barrett & Matthias Lutz
MYCOBIOTA 1: 9–16 (2013)
doi: https://doi.org/10.12664/mycobiota.2013.01.02
Published online: 11 January 2013
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A new genus, Eriocortex is proposed to accommodate a peculiar, new smut fungus, E. eriocauli, collected in Australia on Eriocaulon scullionii.

Basidiomycota,Eriocaulaceae,Eriocortex,Eriocortex eriocauli,molecular phylogenetics,plant pathogens,smut fungi,taxonomy

Emended description of Anomalomyces (Ustilaginales), including Anomalomyces yakirrae sp. nov. on Yakirra pauciflora (Poaceae) from Australia

Roger G. Shivas, Matthias Lutz, Alistair R. McTaggart & Kálmán Vánky
MYCOBIOTA 1: 17–24 (2013)
doi: https://doi.org/10.12664/mycobiota.2013.01.03
Published online: 11 January 2013
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An emended description of the genus Anomalomyces is given to accommodate a new species of smut fungus, Anomalomyces yakirrae, on Yakirra pauciflora (Poaceae) from Australia. The systematic placement of the fungus within the genus Anomalomyces is based on morphological characters and molecular data from two loci.

Anomalomyces panici,Basidiomycota,molecular phylogenetics,plant pathogens,smut fungi,taxonomy

Sporisorium emariae sp. nov. (Ustilaginomycetes) on Sclerachne punctata (Poaceae)

Kálmán Vánky
MYCOBIOTA 1: 57–61 (2013)
doi: https://doi.org/10.12664/mycobiota.2013.01.06
Published online: 11 January 2013
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A new species of Sporisorium, S. emariae on Sclerachne punctata (Poaceae), is described and illustrated from Transcaucasia, Republic of Georgia.

Chionachninae,smut fungi,Sporisorium emariae,taxonomy

Erratomycetaceae, fam. nov., and validation of some names of smut fungi recently described from India

Cvetomir M. Denchev & Teodor T. Denchev
MYCOBIOTA 1: 63–70 (2013)
doi: https://doi.org/10.12664/mycobiota.2013.01.07
Published online: 11 January 2013
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A new family, Erratomycetaceae, is described as distinct from Tilletiaceae based on host specialization, morphological features of the sori and spores, and results of published molecular phylogenetic analyses. Eight invalidly published names of Indian smut fungi are discussed. Four of these are considered to apply to distinct species and their names are validated as Eballistra punensis, Anthracocystis kolhapurensis, Sporisorium mahabaleshwarense, and Sporisorium lohagadense. The remaining names are recognized as synonyms of validly published names. A new name, Anthracocystis guoae, is proposed to replace Sporisorium apludae-muticae L. Guo (non Anthracocystis apludae-muticae (A.R. Patil et al.) McTaggart & R.G. Shivas).

Eballistra,Erratomyces,Erratomycetaceae,India,Melanotaenium,smut fungi,Sporisorium,Tilletia
New data on hypogeous fungi from Greece with special reference to Wakefieldia macrospora (Hymenogastraceae, Agaricales) and Geopora clausa (Pyronemataceae, Pezizales)
Vasileios Kaounas, Boris Assyov & Pablo Alvarado
Mycologia Balcanica 8: 105–113 (2011)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550663
Published online: 13 December 2011
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This work provides new information about five interesting and uncommon hypogeous fungi from Greece – Balsamia vulgaris, Geopora clausa, Hydnocystis piligera, Sclerogaster compactus and Wakefieldia macrospora. Descriptions of the five species are included based upon Greek collections, accompanied by colour macro- and microphotographs, and molecular data of four of them. On the basis of molecular results, the genus Wakefieldia seems to be closely related to Hebeloma in the Hymenogastraceae, while Geopora clausa appears to be related to Geopora in the Pyronemataceae.

Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, Boletales, Geastrales, ITS – LSU
Contribution to the study of Agrocybe pediades complex (Agaricales) in Russia based on nrITS sequences
Ekaterina F. Malysheva & Anna A. Kiyashko
Mycologia Balcanica 8: 115–124 (2011)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550667
Published online: 13 December 2011
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Agrocybe pediades is a rather widespread species mentioned in many Russian regional check-lists. However, there is no agreement among different authors concerning the volume of this species. Some of them recognize single polymorphic species A. pediades with several intraspecies groups. In this case Agrocybe arenicola, A. semiorbicularis and A. subpediades are accepted as synonyms of A. pediades. Under another above-listed species are considered as a group of close but separate taxa. In this research the representatives of A. pediades species complex collected in different parts of Russia have been studied using both molecular and morphological techniques. The analysis of nrITS1-5.8-ITS2 regions has revealed one large well supported clade consisting of specimens labeled before this study as Agrocybe arenicola, A. pediades, A. semiorbicularis and A. subpediades. This clade was characterized by the absence of the reliable morphological differences between included collections. The obtained results correspond to the wide species concept of A. pediades. Several small subclades have been also revealed inside the main clade. Most of them were inconstant with low bootstrap support in NJ, MP and ML analyses. They were shown to belong presumably to A. pediades var. pediades. One subclade recovered in all analyses with high bootstrap support was characterized by some distinct morphological features and was considered afterwards as a new variety of A. pediades – var. bispora. Therefore, all known so far Russian collections belong to A. pediades var. pediades and A. pediades var. bispora.

Agrocybe pediades complex, morphology, new variety, nrITS sequences, phylogenetic analysis, Russia
New records of fungi, fungus-like organisms, and slime moulds from Europe and Asia: 20–27
Cvetomir M. (comp.) Denchev
Mycologia Balcanica 7: 117–123 (2011)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550322
Published online: 14 January 2011
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Synnemacrodictys stilboidea on Ailanthus altissima and Juniperus chinensis is recorded for the first time from Korea and Asia. Occurrence of Diplodia subtecta on Acer palmatum, Melanconis aucta on Alnus glutinosa, and Microbotryum stellariae on Stellaria graminea is reported from Bulgaria. Records of three larger basidiomycetes are given as new for Ukraine (Cantharellus amethysteus) and Bulgaria (Sarcodon joeides and Pluteus salicinus). A new Turkish record of a myxomycete, Physarum perfectum, is also presented.

Acer palmatum, Ailanthus altissima, Alnus glutinosa, Bulgaria, Cantharellus amethysteus, Diplodia subtecta, Juniperus chinensis, Korea, Melanconis aucta, Microbotryum stellariae, myxomycetes, Physarum perfectum, Pluteus salicinus, Sarcodon joeides, Stellaria graminea, Synnemacrodictys stilboidea, Turkey, Ukraine
The use of a database for conservation – case studies with macrofungi
Beatrice Senn-Irlet
Mycologia Balcanica 7: 17–24 (2010)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550145
Published online: 03 November 2010
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Fungal conservation needs a good knowledge of the ecology and distribution of target species. A computerized database is essential to store large amounts of records which can be enhanced and corrected. Three examples are given to illustrate the potential of a database for conservation management and developing conservation strategies. Distribution maps and especially estimated areas of occurrence, obtained by modelling, help build reliability. Associated organism of wood-inhabiting fungi identifies pioneer trees as exceptionally rich woody substrata which have implications in forestry management. The correlation between area size and number of inhabitants reveals the importance of urban areas for conservation.

conservation, database, ecology, modelling
The necessity of political will in fungal conservation: the case of Greece
Stephanos Diamandis
Mycologia Balcanica 7: 25–27 (2010)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550149
Published online: 03 November 2010
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The need for conservation of fungi in Europe has arisen after it was found in several countries that hundreds of fungal species have become extinct. Although Greece is located at the southernmost end of Europe in the Eastern Mediterranean, in a climatic zone characterized by long periods of drought, its mycota appear quite rich and unique. In recent years, Greek and also foreign companies have been picking enormous quantities of edible mushrooms from restricted geographical regions on a commercial level. There is no legislation as yet to monitor this new activity and to certify the mushrooms that are consumed by the public. After studying this situation, a technical committee submitted a proposal in 2007 for legislation to be introduced in order to protect the public from possible mushroom poisoning and also to regulate mushroom picking in an effort to conserve the fungal biodiversity. Sadly, the proposal has not been forwarded accordingly, the reason being “it was opposed by commercial interests”. It is concluded that in addition to having an integrated and sound scientific proposal on the subject, political will is also necessary.

conservation, legislation, mycota
Ex situ fungal conservation: the role of culture collections
Nadezhda V. Psurtseva
Mycologia Balcanica 7: 29–35 (2010)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550158
Published online: 03 November 2010
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Fungi merit protection no less than other living organisms. This is best effected using when ex situ conservation complements in situ conservation. Ex situ conservation means preservation and maintenance of fungal genetic resources in pure culture. Culture collections (“genetic resource collections” and “biological resource centres”) play a key role in successful storage of fungal strains. Specialist organizations direct global co-ordination of culture collection activities in conservation, research, and sustainable use of genetic resources. In Russia the largest culture collection preserving fungi (and various groups of micro-organisms) is the All-Russian Culture Collection (VKM), with over 5000 fungal strains. Ex situ conservation of macromycete diversity is carried out by the Komarov Botanical Institute Basidiomycetes Culture Collection (LE–BIN), a specialized collection maintaining taxonomic diversity of macromycetes with an emphasis on rare, endangered and ectomycorrhizal species, medicinal fungi, and strains useful for biotechnology. Currently that collection maintains over 1600 strains of about 600 species from 184 genera, 51 families, and 8 orders of macromycetes. The LE–BIN culture collection has been developed for ex situ conservation of as many macromycete species as possible.

conservation ex situ, culture collections, fungi, macromycetes diversity
Conservation of larger basidiomycetes in Bulgaria: the case of Boletus
Boris Assyov & Cvetomir M Denchev
Mycologia Balcanica 7: 37–40 (2010)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550166
Published online: 03 November 2010
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Examples from the spectacular and economically important fungus genus Boletus illustrate the current state of and recent events in fungal conservation in Bulgaria. National legislation is reviewed as a base for conservation and sustainable management of fungi. The evaluation approach and application of IUCN criteria for boletes on the new national Red List are illustrated by suitable examples.

Boletus, Bulgaria, conservation, larger basidiomycetes
The third 'F' — fungi in Australian biodiversity conservation: actions, issues and initiatives
Alison M. Pouliot & Tom W. May
Mycologia Balcanica 7: 41–48 (2010)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550169
Published online: 03 November 2010
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Australia’s biota, including fungi, is highly diverse and highly endemic with many species also highly at risk of extinction. Despite ratifying international conventions and the development of national biodiversity conservation strategies, little has changed in the conservation status of Australian fungi over the last decade. Fungi remain largely neglected in most conservation legislation, notwithstanding their importance to ecosystem functioning and consequently to humanity, and there are very few mycologists employed in reference collections or conservation agencies. Few fungi have been included on formal threat status lists and a coordinated national approach toward compiling a threat status list for fungi is urgently required. Given the anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity including climate change, increases in wildfire and subsequent habitat destruction, there is a pressing need for recognition and incorporation of fungi in management and conservation initiatives. Community groups are making an increasingly significant contribution to fungal conservation, especially through mapping and monitoring, but their efforts need greater support from government. There remains a need for a coherent national strategy for the conservation of Australian fungi.

Australia, biodiversity, conservation, EPBC, fungi, IUCN, mycology, RED lists
New Zealand conservation strategies address fauna, flora, and fungi
Peter Buchanan, Peter Johnston, Jodie Davis, Rod Hitchmough & Richard Maloney
Mycologia Balcanica 7: 49–51 (2010)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550179
Published online: 03 November 2010
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The New Zealand Government’s Department of Conservation facilitates assessment of the threat status of all species of New Zealand’s fauna, flora, and fungi on a regular basis. Fungi have been included in these assessments since 2002, and this has stimulated renewed research and awareness of fungal conservation. Assessment has centred mainly on macrofungi and obligate species on threatened plants. Currently, 49 fungal species are listed in the highest threat category (Nationally Critical), 16 species in lower threat categories, and about 1440 species as Data Deficient. In a complementary initiative, the Department is prioritising long-term recovery plans of all species of New Zealand’s threatened taxa that are in decline through evaluation of methodology, feasibility, and cost. This work includes the fungi. To support this work, recent studies have applied molecular techniques to seek new records of Data Deficient fungal species to more accurately define their threat status.

Australasia, data deficient, nationally critical, threatened fungi, prioritisation
Fungal conservation in Africa
Marieka Gryzenhout, Francois Roets & Rian de Villiers
Mycologia Balcanica 7: 53–58 (2010)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550183
Published online: 03 November 2010
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Nature conservation and conservation training in Africa are actively pursued and receive much international interest, but there is little awareness of fungi, of their importance, their uses, their unexplored diversity and the need to protect them. This review summarises the current state of fungal conservation in Africa, describes the recent establishment of the African Workgroup on Fungal Conservation, and discusses possible ways forward for fungal conservation on the continent.

Africa, fungal conservation, status, threats, tools
Biodiversity and conservation in Cameroon
Ndzi N. George & Marieka Gryzenhout
Mycologia Balcanica 7: 65–72 (2010)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550203
Published online: 03 November 2010
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Fungal conservation started attracting the attention of mycologists when the decrease of certain groups of macrofungi became prominent in some countries in the 1980s. Today accurate information on habitat types, substrates, and host specificity of species especially in a semi-quantitative form, are most needed. There is need to pay special attention to experimental studies on the impact of man’s influence on the ecosystems and consequently on the mycoflora. Good legislation on threatened species and communities exists in Cameroon. However, there are no evaluation on the conservation studies of Cameroonian fungi, no comprehensive threat assessment for fungi, no culture collection and maintenance centres and no national organ to promote fungal protection and conservation. Poor public perception and knowledge of fungal diversity, lack of personnel, and public and stakeholder education and training should also be given priority.

Biofertilizer, biopesticide, biodiversity, Cameroon, conservation, ecological threats, fungal conservation, fungal diversity
Conservation issues for Antarctic fungi
Paul D. Bridge & Kevin A. Hughes
Mycologia Balcanica 7: 73–76 (2010)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550215
Published online: 03 November 2010
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More than 1,000 species of fungi have been reported from the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic region. Most are species known from elsewhere in the world, particularly from cool temperate and alpine habitats: few are considered truly endemic to the Antarctic region. Several legislative mechanisms are available that could be used to protect or conserve the Antarctic mycota. These include national legislation within the sub-Antarctic islands, and the Measures and Decisions of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting which have jurisdiction within the Antarctic Treaty area south of latitude 60° S.

Antarctic fungi, Antarctic region, conservation
Contribution to the knowledge of agarics diversity in the Western Caucasus
Anna A. Kiyashko
Mycologia Balcanica 6: 93–98 (2009)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2549942
Published online: 30 December 2009
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Data on 30 species of agaricoid basidiomycetes searched out for the first time in the Western Caucasus are given. As a result, the species diversity of studied region is estimated at 867 agarics taxa.

agaricoid basidiomycetes, fungal diversity, new findings, Western Caucasus
A contribution to the study of fungi associated with Cistus spp. in the Sierra Calderona Nature Reserve, Castellón–Valencia, Spain. II
Miguel Torrejón
Mycologia Balcanica 6: 111–122 (2009)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550041
Published online: 30 December 2009
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Fifty-eight species and seven varieties of fungi and one protozoan associated with Cistus spp. have been collected and studied in the Sierra Calderona Nature Reserve, Castellón–Valencia, Spain. Significant diagnostic characteristics are given for some of them. Several species that belong to Myxomycota, anamorphic fungi and Basidiomycota are of special interest: Agrocybe ochracea, Cladosporium tenuisimum, Cortinarius scobinaceus var. volvatus, var. nov., Entoloma malenconii, Gymnopus lanipes, Hebeloma plesiocistum, Inocybe amblyspora, I. splendens, Inocybe cf. squarrosa, Lindbladia tubulina, Lyophyllum cistophilum, Melanoleuca polioleuca, M. subpulverulenta, Panaeolina foenisecii, Tomentellopsis pusilla and Tulostoma macrocephalum.

fungi associated with Cistus spp., Spain
A first annotated checklist of corticioid and polypore basidiomycetes of the Caucasus region
Masoomeh Ghobad-Nejhad, Nils Hallenberg, Erast Parmasto & Heikki Kotiranta
Mycologia Balcanica 6: 123–168 (2009)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550071
Published online: 30 December 2009
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This is the first combined checklist of corticioid and polypore species from the territories in the Caucasus region, including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russian Caucasus, NE Turkey, and N–NW Iran. Altogether 389 corticioid and 246 polypore species are known from the area, 74 of which are reported as new to the entire region. Each record includes literature references, and, when available, selected unpublished specimens deposited in herbaria or collected recently are listed. The distribution of each species in the Caucasian countries is summarized, and brief notes are provided for some species. Finally, a table and a diagram representing the number of corticioids and polypores and the ratio of these in each country are provided. The checklist aims to serve as a baseline for more detailed studies of wood-inhabiting basidiomycetes in the Caucasus region. The importance of this catalogue for fungal conservation is also mentioned.

aphyllophoroid fungi, biodiversity, hotspot, polypore:corticioid ratio, Red List
New records of fungi, fungus-like organisms, and slime moulds from Europe and Asia: 14–19
Cvetomir M. (comp.) Denchev
Mycologia Balcanica 6: 169–173 (2009)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2550073
Published online: 30 December 2009
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Information about the first finding in Bulgaria and the Balkan Peninsula of Boletus roseoalbidus (= Xerocomus roseoalbidus) is presented. A description and illustrations are provided upon the Bulgarian collections. Cytospora sacculus on Ailanthus altissima is a new record for Bulgaria. Four ascomycetes, Hyponectria buxi, Plagiosphaera immersa, Pleuroceras pleurostylum, Pseudovalsa umbonata, are reported for the first time from Bulgaria.

Ailanthus altissima, anamorphic fungi, Boletales, Boletus roseoalbidus, Bulgaria, Buxus sempervirens, Cytospora sacculus, Diaporthales, Gnomoniaceae, Hyponectria buxi, Hyponectriaceae, Melanconidaceae, Plagiosphaera immersa, Pleuroceras pleurostylum, Pseudovalsa umbonata, Quercus, Salix, Xerocomus roseoalbidus
Contribution to the study of hypogeous fungi of Castellón, Spain. III
Miguel Torrejón
Mycologia Balcanica 6: 61–65 (2009)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548855
Published online: 28 August 2009
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Fourteen species of hypogeous fungi have been collected and studied in the province of Castellón in Spain. Significant diagnostic characters are given for some of them. Several species that belong to the Basidiomycota are of special interest: Alpova microsporus, Hymenogastser bulliardii, H. hessei, H. luteus, H. lycoperdineus, H. muticus, H. niveus and Protoglossum aromaticum (= Hymenogaster remyi).

Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, hypogeous fungi, Spain
Validation of three names of families in the Pucciniomycotina
Cvetomir M. Denchev
Mycologia Balcanica 6: 87–88 (2009)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2549149
Published online: 28 August 2009
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Three names of families in the Pucciniomycotina, Spiculogloeaceae, Erythrobasidiaceae, and Naohideaceae, are validated.

Erythrobasidiaceae, Naohideaceae, Pucciniomycotina, Spiculogloeaceae, taxonomy
New records of smut fungi (Ustilaginomycetes) from Thailand, including two new species, Sporisorium likhitekarajae and Tilletia isachneicola
Roger G. Shivas, Pornpimon Athipunyakom & Alistair R. McTaggart
Mycologia Balcanica 5: 103–107 (2008)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548606
Published online: 23 December 2008
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Several species of smut fungi not previously recorded in Thailand were collected in December 2007. Amongst these were two new species, Sporisorium likhitekarajae on Ischaemum sp. and Tilletia isachneicola on Isachne globosa, which are described and compared with related species.

new species, smut fungi, Sporisorium likhitekarajae, Tilletia isachneicola, Ustilaginomycetes
Contribution to the study of fungi associated with Cistus ladanifer in the north-east of Portugal
Miguel Torrejón
Mycologia Balcanica 5: 109–114 (2008)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548613
Published online: 23 December 2008
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This work deals with 25 species and 4 varieties of fungi; which were collected in the north-east of Portugal. All of them were associated with Cistus ladanifer except Terfezia olbiensis, which was associated with Cistus ladanifer × Cistus salviifolius. Significant diagnostic characters are given for some of the collected specimens. Several species are of special interest: Amanita muscaria var. inzengae, Cortinarius asiduus var. plesiocistus, Cortinarius cystidifer and Terfezia olbiensis.

Cistus ladanifer, fungi, Portugal, taxonomy
The effects of some environmental parameters on mycelial growth of two ectomycorrhizal fungi, Tricholoma caligatum and Morchella angusticeps
Erbil Kalmış & Fatih Kalyoncu
Mycologia Balcanica 5: 115–118 (2008)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548617
Published online: 23 December 2008
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A comparative evaluation was conducted to assess the effects of some environmental parameters such as pH, type of carbon source and temperature on the mycelial growth of two species of ectomycorrhizal fungi, Tricholoma caligatum and Morchella angusticeps. All carbon sources were found to be equally beneficial for mycelial growth. However fructose and sucrose were better sources of nitrogen. Maximum mycelial growth in Petri dishes was achieved at 25 °C after 8 and 20 days for T. caligatum and M. angusticeps respectively. Growth was reduced significantly below 15 °C and above 35 °C. Different pH levels (4.5 to 8.0) markedly affected the mycelial growth of the fungi.

ectomycorrhiza, Morchella angusticeps, mycelial growth, Tricholoma caligatum
Identification of Armillaria species on different hosts from Iran
S.A.R. Dalili, S.G. Nanagulyan & S.V. Alavi
Mycologia Balcanica 5: 119–122 (2008)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548632
Published online: 23 December 2008
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Thirty five isolates of Armillaria were obtained from 15 different host species in fruit orchards and forest regions of Iran. In order to identify species, diploid and haploid cultures were paired with two or three known haploid tester isolates from each intersterile group. Sexual compatibility was evaluated after 6 to 8 weeks based on changes in morphology of haploid colonies from white, with aerial mycelium (fluffy) to brownish, without aerial mycelium (crustose). Citrus aurantium and Abies alba were identified as new hosts of Armillaria mellea; Carpinus betulus was identified as a new host of Armillaria gallica in Iran, which previously has been reported from Serbia and Montenegro. Armillaria spp. isolated from Diospyros lotus, Carpinus betulus, and Alnus subcordata, were not compatible with any tester strains. Diospyros lotus, Citrus aurantium, and Abies alba were new hosts of Armillaria spp. from Iran.

Armillaria, compatibility test, Iran, isolates, hosts
New records of Agaricus (Agaricaceae) for Bulgaria
Maria Lacheva
Mycologia Balcanica 5: 123–128 (2008)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548639
Published online: 23 December 2008
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The current article presents information about six species of Agaricus recorded for the first time from Bulgaria: A. albosericeus, A. fissuratus, A. maskae, A. moelleri, A. pseudopratensis, and A. tenuivolvatus.

Agaricus, Bulgaria, chorological data, conservation value
Two new Thecaphora species, T. ulicis and T. hosackiae (Ustilaginomycetes) on Fabaceae
Kálmán Vánky
Mycologia Balcanica 5: 129–133 (2008)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548651
Published online: 23 December 2008
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Two new Thecaphora species, T. ulicis on Ulex minor from England, and T. hosackiae on Hosackia parviflora from the U.S.A., are described.

Fabaceae, Hosackia, new species, smut fungi, Thecaphora hosackiae, Thecaphora ulicis, Ulex
The hypogeous fungi from Sicily (southern Italy): new additions
Alessandro Saitta, Maria L. Gargano, Marco Morara, Mirko Ilice & Giuseppe Venturella
Mycologia Balcanica 5: 147–152 (2008)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548806
Published online: 23 December 2008
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The distribution and ecology of forty hypogeous fungi from Sicily (southern Italy) is here pointed out. Hysterangium stoloniferum, Protoglossum aromaticum, Sclerogaster compactus and Tuber maculatum are reported as new records from Sicily. Gymnomyces xanthosporus and Melanogaster umbrinigleba are also new for Italy.

distribution, ecology, hypogeous fungi, Sicily
Coprophilous fungi from the Greek Aegean islands
Michael J. Richardson
Mycologia Balcanica 5: 23–32 (2008)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548443
Published online: 30 May 2008
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Seventy-seven species of coprophilous fungi, including Podospora macrodecipiens sp. nov., were recorded from 43 herbivore dung samples collected from fifteen Aegean islands (from 35-41o N and 24-28o E) and subsequently incubated in moist chambers. Collections are described and the occurrence and distribution of species is discussed. The species richness of the Aegean coprophilous mycota is lower than might be expected from simple latitudinal considerations, possibly because of a reduced diversity of herbivores and the island nature of the collections.

ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, biogeography, diversity, ecology, fimicoles
Agaricus species from Greece
Stephanos Diamandis & Charikleia Perlerou
Mycologia Balcanica 5: 33–37 (2008)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548449
Published online: 30 May 2008
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The genus Agaricus includes saprotrophic species occurring in a variety of ecosystems. Most of them, however, are confined to grasslands. Forty one taxa have been recorded in Greece to date. Some species, although heavily picked for their gastronomic value, seem to appear in abundance while others, which are inedible, seem to be infrequent or rare. As in recent years grass and pasturelands in Greece have been included in “improvement programmes” and subjected to the use of fertilizers, there is concern about the disturbance caused to the habitats of the Agaricus species and consequent changes in the fungal biodiversity. It is obvious that further research on the ecology and particularly the factors governing the fruiting and spreading of Agaricus species is necessary before any concrete conclusions are reached and any conservation measures are imposed.

Agaricus, conservation, frequency, fungal biodiversity, Greece
Interesting macrofungi from the Eastern Carpathians, Ukraine and their value as bioindicators of primeval and near-natural forests
Jan Holec
Mycologia Balcanica 5: 55–67 (2008)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548489
Published online: 30 May 2008
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In 1999 and 2007 mycobiota of several locations in the Eastern Carpathians, Ukraine was studied. The Chornohora, Svydovets and Horhany mountain massifs were visited, especially locations with natural (primeval or near-natural) forests. Records of 32 rare, threatened or overlooked species of macrofungi are published. Ten of them are probably new to Ukraine (Cordyceps rouxii, Gymnopilus josserandii, Hydropus atramentosus, H. marginellus, H. subalpinus, Hypholoma subviride, Hypoxylon vogesiacum, Lopadostoma pouzarii, Omphalina cyanophylla, Skeletocutis carneogrisea) and 10 can be considered bioindicators of natural forests (Cystostereum murrayi, Hohenbuehelia auriscalpium, Hydropus atramentosus, Hypoxylon vogesiacum, Multiclavula mucida, Omphalina cyanophylla, Phellinus nigrolimitatus, P. pouzarii, Rigidoporus crocatus, Skeletocutis stellae). The records are compared with the mycobiota of the Poloniny National Park, Slovakia and with data on indicator species of fungi from abroad. The Eastern Carpathians (covering parts of Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine and Romania) seem to be the best refugee for rare (especially lignicolous) fungi of mountain beech and mixed forests in Europe.

biodiversity, bioindication, Carpathian Biosphere Reserve, lignicolous fungi, near-natural forests, primeval forests, Zakarpatska oblast
The second European record of Entoloma exiguum
Mykola P. Prydiuk
Mycologia Balcanica 5: 73–74 (2008)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548506
Published online: 30 May 2008
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Data are presented on the second record in Europe of Entoloma exiguum. A full description and illustration of the Ukrainian collection, as well as information about its habitat are provided.

Agaricales, Entoloma, subgenus Claudopus
Geastrum minimum, a new record of Geastraceae from Tunisia
Taiga Kasuya & Abderrazak Smaoui
Mycologia Balcanica 5: 75–78 (2008)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548510
Published online: 30 May 2008
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A gasteromycetous fungus, Geastrum minimum is newly recorded for the Tunisian mycobiota. It is described and illustrated based on its morphological characteristics.

fungal diversity, Gasteromycetes, Geastrum, taxonomy, Tunisia
Stegocintractia capitata sp. nov. (Ustilaginomycetes) from Germany
Kálmán Vánky, Horst Jage, Ute Schlüter & Heinz Sluschny
Mycologia Balcanica 5: 79–81 (2008)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548516
Published online: 30 May 2008
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After a short revision of the genus Stegocintractia, a new species, S. capitata on Juncus capitatus is described and illustrated. A key to the six known species of Stegocintractia is presented.

Juncaceae, new species, smut fungi, Stegocintractia, Stegocintractia capitata, taxonomy
The genus Cystolepiota (Agaricaceae, Basidiomycetes) in Israel
Anush Kosakyan, Marina Didukh, Solomon P. Wasser & Eviatar Nevo
Mycologia Balcanica 5: 83–86 (2008)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548522
Published online: 30 May 2008
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The genus Cystolepiota is new for Israel. In Israel it is represented by two species: Cystolepiota bucknallii and C. moelleri. Locations, dates of collections in Israel, general distribution, detailed macro- and micromorphological descriptions and illustrations are given.

Asia, biodiversity, Cystolepiota, taxonomy
Urocystis jaapiana (Urocystidaceae) on Ruscus hypophyllum (Ruscaceae) from Algeria
Kálmán Vánky & Abdelaziz Kedad
Mycologia Balcanica 5: 87–89 (2008)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548559
Published online: 30 May 2008
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The rare Urocystis jaapiana, collected on a new host plant species, Ruscus hypophyllum in Algeria, is described, illustrated, and compared with the type specimen on R. aculeatus.

Algeria, Liliaceae s. lat., new host plant, Ruscus hypophyllum, smut fungi, Urocystis jaapiana
A new record of Entoloma occultipigmentatum var. cystidiatum from Italy
Eliseo Battistin & Norberto Righetto
Mycologia Balcanica 5: 91–92 (2008)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548571
Published online: 30 May 2008
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Entoloma occultipigmentatum var. cystidiatum, a very rare taxon known only from two, Austrian localities, is reported as new for Italy and the Mediterranean region and compared with similar taxa.

Entoloma, Entoloma occultipigmentatum var. cystidiatum, Mediterranean region, taxonomy
New records of fungi, fungus-like organisms, and slime moulds: 1-6
Cvetomir M. (comp.) Denchev
Mycologia Balcanica 5: 93–96 (2008)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548575
Published online: 30 May 2008
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Physarum galbeum is reported for the first time from Turkey. Four species of fungi are recorded for the first time from Bulgaria (Botryosphaeria visci on Viscum album, Erysiphe elevata on Catalpa bignonioides, Erysiphe flexuosa on Aesculus hippocastanum, and Scleroderma polyrhizum). Additionally, Botryosphaeria visci is a new record for Romania.

Aesculus hippocastanum, anamorphic fungi, ascomycetes, Botryosphaeria, Bulgaria, Catalpa, Erysiphe, myxomycetes, Physarum, Romania, Scleroderma, Turkey, Viscum
New records of fungi, fungus-like organisms, and slime moulds from Europe and Asia: 7-13
Cvetomir M. (comp.) Denchev
Mycologia Balcanica 5: 153–157 (2008)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2548816
Published online: 23 January 2008
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Cladosporium aecidiicola on spermogonia of Tranzschelia pruni-spinosae on Anemone ranunculoides is reported from Austria. It is the first record of this species from spermogonia. The following new records are reported for the first time: Merendera attica, as a new host of Urocystis colchici (from Bulgaria); Helleborus orientalis, as a new host of Urocystis floccosa – a new species for Turkey; Cantharellus amethysteus from Bulgaria; and Badhamia dubia from Turkey. New combinations of Microbotryum viviparum on Polygonum viviparum in Bauhinus, and Neovossia japonica on Alopecurus geniculatus in Tilletia are proposed.

Anemone ranunculoides, Austria, Badhamia dubia, Bauhinus viviparus, Bulgaria, Cantharellus amethysteus, China, Cladosporium aecidiicola, fungicolous fungi, Helleborus orientalis, hyperparasite, Japan, Merendera attica, Microbotryum, myxomycetes, Neovossia, Tilletia japonica, Tranzschelia pruni-spinosae, Turkey, Urocystis
Cultural diagnosis of Ganoderma lucidum complex from southern India
Malarvizhi Kaliyaperumal & Pudupalayam T. Kalaichelvan
Mycologia Balcanica 4: 15–19 (2007)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2547713
Published online: 20 June 2007
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Ganoderma lucidum and allied species are widespread and cause white rot diseases on economically important crops, hardwoods and forest trees. An attempt has been made to distinguish G. lucidum complex by cultural characteristics. This study showed that the G. lucidum complex in a native collection is represented by G. lucidum, G. resinaceum, G. tropicum, G. weberianum, and Ganoderma sp. Most of the collections were confined to hardwood and rarely found on palm host. All the five species produced chlamydospores with varying shape and size. Ganoderma resinaceum and G. lucidum had an optimum growth rate at 30-35 °C; the former produced larger chlamydospores in culture than the later. Ganoderma tropicum produced cylindrical chlamydospores and had average growth rate at 20-25 °C. Ganoderma weberianum produced both chlamydospores and gastrospores in cultures with optimum growth rate at 30-35 °C. Ganoderma sp. produced both amyloid and inamyloid chlamydospores in culture and had optimum growth temperature of 20-25 °C. All the eight isolates showed positive reaction to acid aniline test.

aniline acid test, chlamydospores, extracellular oxidase, Ganoderma lucidum complex,, southern India
Antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity of submerged mycelium extracts from aphyllophoroid mushrooms
Mikheil D. Asatiani, Vladimir Elisashvili, Solomon P. Wasser, Abraham Z. Reznick & Eviatar Nevo
Mycologia Balcanica 4: 45–50 (2007)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2547732
Published online: 20 June 2007
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Antioxidant properties were studied from ten submerged cultivated mycelium Basidiomycetes strains of aphyllophoroid mushrooms using the ß-carotene bleaching method and ten strains using DPPH free-radical scavenging assay. Three different solvents: ethanol, water (culture liquid), and ethyl acetate were used for extraction. The yield of extracts from biomasses depended on the mushroom species and solvent used. Water extracts from Stereum hirsutum 524 and Ganoderma lucidum 545 showed high (74 % and 81 %) antioxidant activities (AA) at 2 mg/ml using the ß-carotene bleaching method. When the ethanol extracts were tested, the highest AA were found in Ganoderma lucidum 545, Stereum hirsutum 524, and Trametes versicolor 1013 extracts (77 %, 68 %, and 72 %, respectively) at a concentration of 2 mg/ml. Water and ethanol extracts from Ganoderma lucidum showed the highest scavenging ability (70 % and 56 %, respectively) on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals at a minimal sample concentration of 0.5 mg/ml. The scavenging capacity of extracts varied from 1 to 85 % depending on the mushroom species, solvent used, and concentration. Inonotus tamaricis and Trametes gibbosa, exerted high scavenging abilities at low-effective concentrations.

antioxidant activity, aphyllophoroid mushrooms, free-radical scavenging, submerged mycelium, water and ethanol extracts
Lysurus cruciatus (Phallales) – first record in Bulgaria and southeastern Europe
Boris Assyov & Viktor Gashtarov
Mycologia Balcanica 4: 93–94 (2007)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2547962
Published online: 20 June 2007
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This brief note provides information about the first finding in Bulgaria and the southeastern Europe of Lysurus cruciatus, an alien species in this continent. Description is provided upon the Bulgarian sample.

alien fungi, Clathraceae, gasteromycetes, Lysurus, Phallales
New and rare Bulgarian boletes
Boris Assyov
Mycologia Balcanica 2: 75–81 (2005)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2546870
Published online: 30 June 2005
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The paper provides information about the first findings in Bulgaria of four rare and noteworthy taxa of Boletus. A new combination, B. persicolor, is proposed for the accommodation of Xerocomus persicolor into Boletus. Boletus depilatus, B. luteocupreus, B. permagnificus, and B. persicolor are described and illustrated. In addition a second locality in Bulgaria is reported for B. dupainii, which is one of the candidates for inclusion of the Appendix I of the Bern Convention. The potential conservation status of the five species is briefly discussed.

Basidiomycetes, Boletales, Bulgaria, fungal diversity, rare fungi
Checklists of the myxomycetes and macromycetes in Turkey
Ertuğrul Sesli & Cvetomir M. Denchev
Mycologia Balcanica 2: 119–160 (2005)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2546937
Published online: 30 June 2005
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This paper attempts to compile available data on Turkish myxomycetes and macromycetes published between 1915 and February, 2005, and obtained from 294 publications. Two main lists of myxomycetes and macromycetes are given where the taxa are alphabetically arranged. The total number of correct names of species, recorded from Turkey and presented in both checklists, is 1778, including 177 myxomycetes and 1601 macromycetes. For each taxon, references are cited. An index of synonyms based on literature records from Turkey is appended. It includes 671 species and infraspecific taxa. Information about the species distribution in the European or/and Asian parts of Turkey is also given.

biodiversity, fungal diversity, macromycetes, myxomycetes, taxonomy, Turkey
New data about Boletales in Bulgaria
Boris Assyov
Mycologia Balcanica 1: 85–88 (2004)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2546685
Published online: 30 November 2004
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This paper provides information about the distribution of 22 species of Boletales. New data are reported or confirmations of previous older records are made.

boletes, Bulgaria, conservation of fungi
Genus Chamaemyces (Agaricaceae) in Israel
Marina Ya. Didukh, Solomon P. Wasser & Eviatar Nevo
Mycologia Balcanica 1: 89–94 (2004)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2546695
Published online: 30 November 2004
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The species of the genus Chamaemyces present in Israel and their distribution are considered. Detailed data on Chamaemyces fracidus var. pseudocastaneus, new to Israel’s mycobiota, and Ch. carmelensis M. Didukh et S. Wasser, sp. nov. are presented.

Chamaemyces, Israel, taxonomy
Diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi in natural beech forests in Transcarpathia (Ukraine): a preliminary survey
Nicolas Küffer, Pavlo S. Lovas & Béatrice Senn-Irlet
Mycologia Balcanica 1: 129–134 (2004)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2546727
Published online: 30 November 2004
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We found 131 species of wood-inhabiting fungi in two different beech forest types in the Carpathian Mountains of Ukraine. The corticioid and poroid aphyllophorales (Basidiomycetes) showed a remarkably high species richness. Among them species highly depending on large amounts of dead wood, especially logs for growth and fruiting, such as Dentipellis fragilis. The woodruff beech forests (Galio-Fagenion) harbour a greater number of fungal species than the fir beech forests (Abieti-Fagenion). These beech forests in the Carpathian Mountains provide an interesting opportunity to study the beech forests in Europe in their natural appearance, not or hardly influenced by human activity.

beech forest, Carpathian Mountains, species richness, Ukraine, wood-inhabiting fungi
Preliminary checklist of Boletales s. str. in Bulgaria
Boris Assyov & Cvetomir M. Denchev
Mycologia Balcanica 1: 195–208 (2004)
doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2546785
Published online: 30 November 2004
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The paper provides a preliminary checklist of Boletales in Bulgaria. It includes 77 species belonging to 18 genera. For each recorded taxon the distribution throughout the country, references to literature sources as well as the collection in which herbarium specimens are kept are given.

Basidiomycetes, Boletales, Bulgaria, checklist, fungal diversity